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genetics 3.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mark Fitzpatrick

Gregor Mandel – Heredity laws Genes: parts of chromosomes that govern a trait, makes proteins that defines traits Allele: alternate form of a gene. E.g. Gene for height, allele for tall or short Genotype: actual genetic information and what it says Phenotype: the way the trait looks e.g. blue eyes Sperm cell with a blue eye allele (a) on homologous chromosome 5 and egg cell with brown eye allele (A) to make Genotype Aa, and phenotype brown eyes. Dominate Trait: characteristic that is always used Recessive Trait: Present but not used unless it’s the only allele -One type of trait will be dominant and will trump the others. Homozygous Dominant: AA or aa (both the same) Homozygous Recessive: Aa (not the same) P Generation: parent generation all with homozygous genes F1 Generation: offspring from the cross of P generation, first filial generation Law of segregation: states that the inherited traits are determined by pairs of alleles and genes which Mandel called “factors”. These “factors” segregate (separate) in the gametes it one in each gamete. Law of independent assortment: States that the inheritance of one trait doesn’t affect the inheritance of alleles for another trait -Alleles pairs are passed to the offspring independently of each other -One trait doesn’t affect the inheritance of another. Inheriting blue eyes has nothing to do with inheriting blond hair. Monohybrid Crosses: -Does it with one trait at a time. -Demonstrates how dominance and recessive genes could be passed onto from one generation to another. -Dominance Genotypes are indicated with a capital letter and letter represents the dominance phenotype. -Recessive Genotypes are indicated with a lower case letter P1 Generation: BB bb F1 Generation: Bb Bb Bb Bb F2 Generation: BB Bb Bb bb
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