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BIOA01H3 (699)


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Biological Sciences
Mark Fitzpatrick

Population Population Size = (Birth Rate + Immigration) – (Death Rate + Emigration) ÷ (n) 100 Reproductive Strategies  Sea turtles large offspring , low survival rate  Mammals small offspring, parental involvement high survival rate **density dependent Intraspecific Factors (within a species) - diseases**, human intervention, pests* and competition** for: food, shelter, mates Interspecific Factors - competition**, human intervention & predators** Ecosystems Niche  a species has a number of variables that affect it and it affects  a 3D space that includes all variables the species requires and affect Herbivore - animals that eat vegetation Carnivore - animals that eat other animals Omnivore - animals that eat both vegetation and other animals Symbiotic relationships – two species living together  Mutualism (both benefit)  Paratism ( 1 benefits as the other loses)  Commensalism (one benefits as the other is unaffected) Food Chains, Food Webs and Food Pyramids Biotic Factors Factors that affect the distribution of organisms include  Interactions with other species  Competition  Predators Dispersal Movement of individuals away from centers of high population density or from their area of origin Contributes to global distribution of organisms Species transplants Organisms that are intentionally or accidentally relocated from their original distribution Disrupt the communities or ecosystems to which they have been introduced  Endemic species —> local  Transplanted species —> from another area  Invasive —> if it spreads without predator Behavior and Habitat Selection Some organisms do not occupy all of their potential range Species distribution may be limited by habitat selection behavior Habitats Lakes Oligotrophic LakesNutrient-poor and generally oxygen-rich Eutrophic Lakes Nutrient-rich and often depleted of oxygen if ice covered in winter Rooted and floating aquatic plants live in the shallow and well-lightedlittoral zone Wetlands  A habitat that is covered by water most of the time and that supports plants adapted to water-saturated soil  Can develop in shallow basins, along flooded river banks, or on the coasts of large lake and seas Streams and Rivers  Physical characteristic is current Estuaries  A transition area between river and sea  Nutrient rich and highly productive Intertidal Zones  Periodically submerged and exposed by the tides  Challenged by variations in temperature and salinity and by mechanical forces of wave action Oceanic Pelagic Zone  A
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