BIOA01H3 F Lecture Notes.docx

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Biological Sciences
Heinz- Bernhard Kraatz

CELL BIOLOGY AND METABOLISM INTRO TO THE TREE OF LIFE Sept. 13, 2012 • What is biology? o The study of life from molecules to the planet o It is a dynamic science • What is life? o Consist of organized cells o Contain heritable genetic information for reproduction o Show growth o Respond to stimuli o Exhibit homeostasis o Harness and utilize energy o Evolve • How is ALL life on earth related? o Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection- unifying framework for biology • What are the unifying principles of life? o Diversity of Life (through evolution) o Unity of life (through evolution) • What is meant by the “Tree of Life” o Represents the phylogeny of organisms  The genealogical relationships among species with a single ancestral species at its base o Comes from three main domains; Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya o The tree of life is still being debated o The tree of life is one of the main core themes in this biology class • The tree of life emerges from evolution • (video) • It took over 4.5 billion years for the world to form • Lecture 02 – textbook reference , section of chapter 3 • Review purple pages and review chapter 3 for next lecture Origins Sept. 14, 2012 • How were the organic molecules (amino acids, nucleotides) that define life created? o Three main hypotheses  Primordial Soup • No protective atmosphere to protect from UV light rays • Evidence to support this theory is Miller’s Urey Experiment (after one week and organic compounds were found)  Deep-Sea Vents • How Did LUCA make a living? Chemiosmosis in the origin of life. BioEssays. Vol. 32:4 p.271-280  Extra-terrestrial Origins • Meteroites are rich in organic molecules o These are all working hypotheses and they are still being tested • How were these assembled into macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids)? o The key components of life are polymers (nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates)  Clay hypothesis  Clay accelerates the formation of liposomes o The appearance of protobionts • How were these able to reproduce themselves? o DNA -> RNA -> Protein o Idea: Early cells would have RNA that could synthesize itself and later evolved into DNA o We still don’t live in an RNA world because DNA is more chemically stable. o Proteins are also better catalysts than RNA  Variety of proteins • How were these assembled into a system separated from the surroundings? • Early protobionts used molecules present in the environment for growth and replication • Heterotrophs, Autotrophs • Primordial heterotrophs did not survive, probably because oxygen was poisonous • There are two types of cells found on earth; prokaryotes and eukaryotes • Prokaryotes (Bacteria, Archea) • Eukarya (Eukaryotes) TREE OF LIFE: PROKARYOTES Sept. 18, 2012 • Prokaryotic Morphology o Unicellular o Sphere, rod, spiral o Are very small (diameter in the range of 1 to 10 um) • Gram positive bacteria have a thick layer of peptidoglycan while gram negative bacteria have a thin layer of peptidoglycan • Prokaryotes reproduce by binary fission o Asexual reproduction • Bacteria are the most diverse • Necrotizing Fascilitis – flesh eating disease Read chp 1 (will help with lab), 3, 20, purple pages EUKARYOTES Sept. 20, 2012 • Read first section of chapter 2 • Theory of Endosymbiosis: evidence that our cells come from bacteria • Why do both mitochondria and chloroplasts still retain a genome? o Gene transfer not yet complete o Retained genes encode for proteins involved in ETC – tight regulation may be difficult if genes are in the nucleus • Bill Bryson’s book (watch lecture for info) o A typical cell will contain over 20, 000 proteins • The Nucleus (12) o DNA is organized into chromosomes (single DNA molecule + proteins), chromatin o Nucleolus –site of protein synthesis o Nuclear envelope is double membrane (inner and outer) , pore regulates entry/exi (RNA, proteins, macromolecules) • Cisternae is the outside of smooth ER the lumen is inside • Cis face of Golgi complex points toward ER, trans face points away from ER • The endomembrane part of the cell includes nucleus, smooth ER, Rough ER, Golgi • Multiple folds in mitochondria increase surface for cellular respiration EUKARYOTES II Sept. 21, 2012 • Microfilaments are usually referred to as actin • The Cytoskeleton o Provides structural integrity to the cell o Drives cell motility o For
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