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Lecture #14

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mark Fitzpatrick

Lec 20 -Test information will be posted online - Test will cover chapters 1,2,3,4,9,10,11,12 - Use pencils on the scantron! - The final exam covers everything up until October 26 ! th - Know scientific method, experimental design, data presentation (how you put a graph together), maybe some statistics - Material studied in labs 1-3 will be on the exam - Room assignments will be posted online Living Organisms are: Are composed of cells, reproduce, maintain their internal environment, and gain energy from their surroundings. For life to form evolve, there are 4 conditions: 1. Organisms need a supply of molecules that are capable of self-replication and are thus capable for the reproduction of the organism 2. The replicator must be subject to error so that the organism can evolve and change. 3. Organisms require a supply of free energy to support metabolism, growth, reproduction, and movement, among other activities. 4. The internal environment must be partially isolated from the external environment. The cell should be isolated from the environment because of the amount of reactions occurring within it. Why are membranes so important for living organisms? - They separate the internal and external environment - They contain the contents of the cell - Membranes are important when considering the endo-membrane system, that is comprised of the nucleus, golgi apparatus, nucleus, vesicles. - Structures such as mitochondria and chloroplast have unique membranes - Every unique living organism has a plasma membrane. The plasma membrane, cell membrane, and plasmolema all refer to the same thing. - Not all cells have internal membranes; only Eukaryotes have an endo-membrane system. - Whats important in a biological membrane is that it is selectively permeable. Selective permeability allows for interaction between the cell and its environment (selecting what
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