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BIOA01H3 (687)


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Biological Sciences
Bebhinn Treanor

INTRO Thrive almost everywhere -extreme habitats -Appear simple in structure -Have the greatest metabolic diversity Two Domains 1. Bacteria 2. Archae Bacteria food production disease Archae Not well known some features of bacteria with eukaryotes live in very harsh conditions. Morphology Unicellular 3 Shapes coccus, bacillus, spirillus Very Small Cell Structure cell wall cell membrane capsule pili flagella nucleoid plasmids ribosomes lack organelles with membrane similar to cytoskeleton Cell wall-Bacteria -maintains shape, protects -Peptidoglycan - polymer of modified sugars cross linked by short polypeptides Not found in Archae Bacterial cell walls contain lipopolysaccharide LPS Difference in cell wall structure, classifies bacteria Gram Strain - classifying bacteria -difference in cell wall composition, peptideglycan - Cell stained with crystal violet, then iodine =purple POSITIVE and no LPS -Cells rinsed with ethanol and stained with safranin = pink NEGATIVE and has LPS Sticky Capsule - layer outside cell wall - polysaccharides - protects bacteria from external environment •desiccation • extreme temperatures • invading viruses • antibiotics Virulence (capacity to development into disease) Factor Pill and Fimbriae -Pili hairlike appendage found on surface -aids attachment to host surfaces: required for colonization and required to initiate formation of a biofilm -conjugative sex pilli allow transfer plasmids between bacteria -HGT horizontal Gene Transfer Flagella -whiplike motion -locomotion -sensitive to external environment (sensory) - prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ in protein composition, structure, mechanism of propulsion Genome single circular DNA , packed into nucleoid region smaller rings of genes called plamids plasmids resistance to antibiotics replicated independently -transferred between bacteria via pili Ribosomes -smaller than eukrayotic -protein synthesis similar -Archaeal Bacteria has similarities with eukaryotic ribosomes, not sensitive to antibiotics Binary Fission 1. replication 2. segregation 3.cytokenesis -asexual repro -produces exact copies of parent -rapid population growth Mechanism promoting genetic diversity 1. Rapid reproduction and mutation 2. Genetic Recombination & tran
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