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Biological Sciences
Bebhinn Treanor

Lecture 2 Properties of Life 7 1 Consists of organized cells 2 Contain heritable genetic information for reproduction 3 Show growth 4 Respond top stimuli 5 Maintains homeostasis 6 Harness and Utilize Energy 7 Adapt to environmental change with evolution through natural selection CRGSHEA Eg Crash Theory of Evolution by Natural SelectionAll species past and present can trace back their ancestry to a single common ancestor Cell TheoryCells are the basic units of lifeAll organisms are composed of cellsAll cells come from preexisting cells EvolutionDiversity comes from evolution o theory of evolution through natural selection is a unifying framework o all organisms are capable of reproduction involving duplication of genetic material with potential for error o results in biological evolution through natural selection o mutations allow them to live in varying environments and to adapt to changing environmental conditionsUnity of Life through evolution o cells are enclosed by lipid bilayer o genetic system based on DNA o system of info transfer DNARNAprotein o system of protein assembly using tRNA and mRNA using ribosomes o ATP is the chemical energy of all life o Metabolic pathway to generate ATP o Proteins are the major structural and catalytic molecule of all life on earth Classification of OrganismsDomainKingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesScientific names are always italicized Genus species Phylogeny the genealogicial relationships among species with a single ancestral species at its base This means that the tree of life is built on genes Lecture03 Origin of Life on EarthChemical and physical processes on early Earth produced simple cells with the characteristics of living organisms4 stages o Abiotic Synthesisof small organic molecules monomers o Polymerizationjoining of monomers into polymers o Packaging into protobionts membranes that maintained internal chemistry o System to store information DNA and use it to guide synthesis1 Abiotic Synthesis a All life froms composed of macromolecules proteins lipids carbohydrates nucleic acids b There are 3 major hypothesis i Primordial Soup 1 Water vapour H2 CO2 NH3 CH4 no O2 2 OparinHaldance Hypothesis reducing atmosphereNo Ozone 3 MillerUrey Experimentii Panspermia iii DeepSea Vents 1 Super heated water is rich with H2 CO2 HS 2 Creates a geochemical gradient 2 Polymerization a 4 parts i Carbohydrates simple sugars ii Lipidstheyre just lipids iii Proteinsamino acids iv Nucleic Acids nucleotides b Clay Hypothesis i Charged layer allows for molecular adhesion forcesii Clays can store potential energy used in polymerization reactions 3 Protobionts a Groups of abiotically produced organic molecules surrounded by a membrane b Unique internal chemistry and concentration i Lab experiments show they can be spontaneously generated ii Similar to liposome lipid vesicle with lipid bilayer selectively permeable 4 Central Dogma a Every step requires enzymes so how can it start if proteins are required to make proteins b RNA molecules can function as enzymesribozymes c Catalytic properties due to foldingspecificity for substrate d Early life may have existed in an RNA world BUT i DNA is better at info storage than RNA ii More structurally complex and contains super deoxyribose iii Chemically more stable iv Base uracil replaced with thymineDNA repair common for cytosine to mutate into uracil v Double stranded DNA repair e Proteins are better catalysts than RNA f Rate of catalysis is 10100 times greater
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