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Biological Sciences
Bebhinn Treanor

Lecture 1LIVING ORGANISMEssential features of a living organism Grow maintain oneself and reproduce Complex Macromolecules Components macromoleculesProcess of growing maintaining and reproducingGlycolipids Lipids carbohydrates o Have a source of energy Lipoproteins Lipids Proteins o Must be able to get raw materials from their environment Glycoproteins Carbohydrates proteinEx Building materials carbohydrates Nucleiproteins Nucleic Acids Protein o Have a plan for how to use the raw materials and energy to make the component oftheir bodies PROTIENSKey componentsingredients of all living organisms building supply energy source planSignificance Very importantworkhorses of cell Function of proteins CELLS ARE THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE o Act as EnzymesBiological catalysts to drive chemical reactonsReasons why cells are the fundamental unit of life cell theory o Form structural features of the cellExmembrane proteins and components of the o It is the simplest unit of life capable of independent existence and reproduction cytoskeleton ie Microtubules intermediate filaments microfilaments o All organisms are composed of 1 cells o Serve as signal moleculesInfluence of DNA Goes beyond the nucleus and all cellular activityo Signal receivers o Chaperoninshelp other proteins achieve their final shapeProteins structure Polymer made up of combination of 20 different amino acid monomer CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CELLSPolymer molecules made up of monomer units that have a core structural similarity thatOrganization of cells Small and large molecules allows them to be bonded via condensation dehydration reactions with the same type ofVery important molecule small HO Water 2covalent bond Macromolecules in the living tissue of the human body minus bonefrom biggest toMonomer units for protein Amino Acids smallest of Amino Acids 20 o WaterFeatures of Amino Acids Amino acids all have the same structure except for R groupo ProteinAmino acid in aqueous solutions dissolved in water the nitrogen of the amino group gains a o DNARNA protonto becomecharged and t
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