Class Notes (811,170)
Canada (494,539)
BIOA02H3 (428)

BIOA02 - chapter 53

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

Biology – Chapter 53 Ethology: The study of animal behaviour from an evolutionary perspective Proximate Mechanisms: the hormonal, neuronal, and anatomical mechanisms of a behaviour Ultimate Mechanisms: The selection process that shaped its evolution Stereotypic Behaviour: An unlearned trait (usually species specific) where individuals of a species performs exactly the same way Genes do NOT produce behaviour; rather, the product of genes (i.e. enzymes) affects behaviour by setting forth a series of genetic – environment interaction which allows for the appropriate proximate mechanism that allow for certain behaviours to occur Deprivation Experiments: A type of experiment where a young animal is reared so it is deprived of all the experiments needed to perform a behaviour being studied. If the animal picks up the behaviour regardless, then it is stereotypic Even if a behaviour is not expressed under the deprived state, it may still be genetically influenced. Some behaviours are only expressed under certain conditions, influenced by a releaser Also, genetic experiments such as selective breeding, interbreeding, and gene knockout experiments also help determine the influence of the environment on a behaviour Releaser: An object, event, or condition required to elicit a behaviour I.e. a squirrel brought up in a deprived environment may be thought as not possessing the knowledge or experience to find nuts and bury them, however when it is actually given a nut, it may perform the act of biting it and digging a hole to bury it. The nut acts as a releaser. Critical point: A specific time frame where learning occurs in an organism’s development Imprinting: A type of learning where an organism learns a set of stimuli during a limited critical period. I.e. the recognition of offspring by their parents and parents by their offspring The critical period for imprinting may be determined by a brief developmental or hormonal state. I.e. if a female goat does not nuzzle and lick her newborn within 10 minutes of birth, she will not recognize it as her offspring. During this time, the goat has high levels of oxytocin in her Some behaviours are learned through complex interactions between genetics and the environment. Without either one, the behaviour will not be develop (i.e. a birds song) Other behaviours are influenced by the endocrine system, and are expressed in response to a certain hormones being released Habitat: The environment that an organism chooses to live The cues that many organisms use to select their habitat are dependent on whether or not it is a good predictor of conditions suitable for future survival and reproduction However, some organisms use visual cues to determine where to live; i.e. whether or not other individuals of the same species are present In extreme cases, very social organisms such as honeybees actually vote for where they should live Territory: A part of a habitat that an animal or set of animals exclusively use; not allowing other individuals of the same species or different species from entering Cost-Benefit Approach: An approach that assumes that an animal has limited amount of energy to devote to its activities. Animals cannot long perform activities where the total cost is greater than the sum of its benefits The components of the ‘costs’ of a particular behaviour are: 1. Energetic Cost: the difference between energy that the animal would have expended had it rested and the energy expended in performing the behaviour 2. Risk Cost: the increased chance of being killed performing a task, compared with resting 3. Opportunity Cost: the sum of the benefits the animal forfeits by not performing all other tasks during that time interval Foraging Theory: a theory that states that the primary benefits of foraging are the nutritional value of food obtained (its energy, vitamins, and minerals). The costs of foraging are similar to those of territorial defence: energy expended, time lost for other activities that could improve fitness, and the increased risk of death/injury The choosing of a mating partner may be based on the inherent qualities of the potential mate, or the resources it controls (food, nest sites etc) or the combination of both Males and females differ in the way they chose their sexual partner (males typically fight for females, and seldom reject any female where it’s the opposite for females) This is because of the costs of producing sperm and egg. For males, sperm is very cheap and easy to produce therefore they can increase their reproductive success by mating with numbers of females. Eggs on the other hand are much larger and more expensive therefore to maximize their reproductive success they are very picky about their mate Most males perform
More Less

Related notes for BIOA02H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.