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bioa02 chapter 31

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

Chapter 31 31.1 What evidence indicate the animals are monophyletic? - What traits distinguish the animals from the other groups of organisms? o All animals are multicellular o Animal life cycles feature complex patter of development from a single- celled zygote into a multicellular adult o All animals are heterotroph able to synthesized very few organic molecules from inorganic chemicals, therefore have to take nutrients o Animals use internal processes to break down materials form their environment into the organic molecules they need most o Most animals can move - animals share a common ancestor comes form their many shared derived molecular and morphological traits o many gene sequences support the monphyly of animals o they display similarities in the organization and function of their Hox genes o they have unique types of junctions between their cells o have common set of extrecelluar matrix molecules collagen, and proteoglycan - the ancestor of animal is most likely to be a colonial flagellated protest - once functional specialization had began, cells continued to differentiate - clues to the evolutionary relationships among animal groups can be found in fossils, in patterns of embryonic development, in the morphology and physiology of living animals, in the structure of animal molecules, and in the genomes of animals - the first few cell divisions of a zygote are known as cleavage the number of cells in the embryo doubles with each cleavage - a number of different cleavage patterns exist among animals they are influenced by the configuration of the yolk, the nutritive material that nourishes the growing embryo - radical cleavage with the fertilized egg cell dividing in an even pattern o is the ancestral condition for eumetazoans, so it is found among protostomes and diploblastic animals - spiral cleavage a complicated derived permutation of redial cleavage o is found among many lophotrochozoans, such as earthworms and clams - the early branches of the exdysozoans have radial cleavages, although most doesnt have either radial or spiral cleavage - the embryos of diploblastic animals have only two of these cell layers an outer ectoderm and an inner endoderm - the embryo of triploblastic animals have ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm, which lies between the ectoderm and the endoderm
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