Where Does Intelligence Come From.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Jamie Donaldson

Where Does Intelligence Come From:  Belief that everything we know and think is a product of our experience with the world.  Leibniz’s view: they think human beings as the joint product of nature and nurture, where they gain characteristics that are endowed and of the experiences. Genetic Influences of Intelligence: Studying Relativeness:  Members of the same family may have similar levels of intelligence because they share the same genes and environment-or both.  When siblings have the same biological parents but different birthdays, they share the 50% of their genes  Fraternal twins: twins who develop from two different eggs that are fertilized by two different sperm-they share average of 50% of the genes.  Identical twins: twins who develop from splitting of a single egg that was fertilized by a single sperm and they share 100% of their genes.  Identical twin test scores are strongly correlated when brought up in the same household. But there is also a correlation if they are not brought up in the same house.  People who share all their genes have similar intelligence test sores regardless of whether they share their environment.  Genes play an important role in determining intelligence Heritability:  Heritability coefficient: is a statistic that describes the proportion of the difference between people’s scores that can be explained by differences in their genes.  50 percent of the difference between people’s intelligence test scores is due to genetic differences between them (that doesn’t mean 50 percent genes, 50 percent environment)  The intelligences of a single person is a product of both genes and experiences and cannot be “due” to one of these things more than the other.  This coefficient, tell us why people in a particular group differ from one another.  People with identical experience, then differ due to genes, and when people have identical genes they differ in experiences.  Shared environment: those environmental factors that are experienced by all relevant members of a household.  Correlation between IQ scores of siblings decrease as the age difference between them increases due to different shared environments.  The family environment does not matter for development, but what matters is the individual environment of these children. Environmental Influences on Intelligence  Traits that are strongly influenced by genes may also be strongly influenced by the environment  Relative intelligence: generally stable over time (if your intelligent at age 11 , you will be at age 80)  Absolute intelligence: change considerably over time. Intelligence tends to increase between adolescence and middle age and then decline after  Absolute intelligence tends to decrease across the average life span, but increase through generations.  Flynn effect: average intelligence test score has been
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