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2013BIOAO2 Lecture 08.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Ivana Stehlik

2013BIOAO2 S Module 1 January 7 ~Feb1 2013 Midterm date: Monday Febuary 4 2013. 5-7pm Module 2: Begins on Tuesday Feb 5 . th Total: 12 lectures Lecture outline: 1-2: Tree of life-plants 3-4 Plant cells and plant tissues 5-6. From seed to tree 7-8. From tree to seed 9. Transport in plants 10. Plant nutrition and soils 11. Plant defense 12. Plant life on the edge. Lecture 8 notes (From tree to seed);aka sex in plants 3) How to avoid doing it yourself c) self incompatiblilty no fertilization with own pollen because there is biochemical self recognization. Stigma change biochemical surface, rejects its own pollen, if pollen gets into pollen tube, a plug is produced to prevent inbred offspring. e.g fruit trees such as apple trees, chrry, pear. 4) Sex slaves of the plant kingdom. Flowers: ingenious solution of angiosperms: non-directed or directed moblilty of pollen to seek egg. Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Cenozoic era. – angiosperms. Insects involved in angiosperms from smallest to largest influence: Diptera, Lepidoptera, hymenoptera, Coleoptera Forces behind the evolution of flowers;  Assurance of seed set: sheer mechanisms, bring female and male gametes together ot at least replace the two parents  Inbreeding avoidance: create high quaility offspring. Pollination syndromes: direct and indirect moblility of pollen to seek egg  Specialization of floral architecture, attraction, food requirements, rewards  Abiotic pollination- indirect. Water&wind. Most water plants produce above water o 10% of all plants are wind-pollinated o 18% of plants have wind-pollinated species in them o wind pollination found in high lattitdue/alititude, dry environments, open vegetation, island floras. o E.g orchard grass, awneless brome grass., willow, alder, manitoba maple o All grass are wind-pollinated o Wind pollinated plants are: small inconspicious flowers, no special flower, no nectar, long filaments, long styles. Produce a lot of pollen. o  Biotic pollination-direct. Animals, mammals. Can control which animals come. o Pollinator needs reward (pollen, nectar) o Specialized organ construction o Often only a restricted set of polinators can take rewards=adaptation to specialized pollinators  Specialist plants rely on more narrow group of polinators. Extreme co-evolution=one po
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