January 7 ~Feb1 2013
Midterm date: Monday Febuary 4 2013. 5-7pm
Module 2: Begins on Tuesday Feb 5 . th
Total: 12 lectures
1-2: Tree of life-plants
3-4 Plant cells and plant tissues
5-6. From seed to tree
7-8. From tree to seed
9. Transport in plants
10. Plant nutrition and soils
11. Plant defense
12. Plant life on the edge.
Lecture 8 notes (From tree to seed);aka sex in plants
3) How to avoid doing it yourself
c) self incompatiblilty
no fertilization with own pollen because there is biochemical self recognization.
Stigma change biochemical surface, rejects its own pollen, if pollen gets into pollen
tube, a plug is produced to prevent inbred offspring.
e.g fruit trees such as apple trees, chrry, pear.
4) Sex slaves of the plant kingdom.
Flowers: ingenious solution of angiosperms: non-directed or directed moblilty of
pollen to seek egg.
Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Cenozoic era. – angiosperms. Insects involved in angiosperms from smallest to largest influence: Diptera,
Lepidoptera, hymenoptera, Coleoptera
Forces behind the evolution of flowers;
Assurance of seed set: sheer mechanisms, bring female and male gametes
together ot at least replace the two parents
Inbreeding avoidance: create high quaility offspring.
Pollination syndromes: direct and indirect moblility of pollen to seek egg
Specialization of floral architecture, attraction, food requirements, rewards
Abiotic pollination- indirect. Water&wind. Most water plants produce above
o 10% of all plants are wind-pollinated
o 18% of plants have wind-pollinated species in them
o wind pollination found in high lattitdue/alititude, dry environments,
open vegetation, island floras.
o E.g orchard grass, awneless brome grass., willow, alder, manitoba
o All grass are wind-pollinated
o Wind pollinated plants are: small inconspicious flowers, no special
flower, no nectar, long filaments, long styles. Produce a lot of pollen.
Biotic pollination-direct. Animals, mammals. Can control which animals
o Pollinator needs reward (pollen, nectar)
o Specialized organ construction
o Often only a restricted set of polinators can take rewards=adaptation
to specialized pollinators
Specialist plants rely on more narrow group of polinators.
Extreme co-evolution=one po