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2013BIOAO2 Lecture 007.docx

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Biological Sciences
Ivana Stehlik

2013BIOAO2 S Module 1 January 7 ~Feb1 2013 Midterm date: Monday Febuary 4 2013. 5-7pm Module 2: Begins on Tuesday Feb 5 . th Total: 12 lectures Lecture outline: 1-2: Tree of life-plants 3-4 Plant cells and plant tissues 5-6. From seed to tree 7-8. From tree to seed 9. Transport in plants 10. Plant nutrition and soils 11. Plant defense 12. Plant life on the edge. Lecture 7 notes (From tree to seed);aka sex in plants 1) plant sex organs Generalized flower structure: 4=stamen,carpel,sepal,petal  Male: anther + filament=stamen  Female: stigma + style+ ovary = carpel  Sepal(sepal covers petal)  Petal Sepal  Protects inner flower organs before bud opens  Frequently green  Can be used to form tubes Petals  Typically colorful to attract pollinators  Can be fused to form tube.  E.g violet, walsteinia, bellflower Stamen  Anther: pollen produces. Has 4 pollen sacs Carpel  Stigma: sticky landing platform for pollen (e.g. kiwi, poppy, tulip)  Style: connects stigma with ovary (Azalea, primrose, lily,)  Ovary contains one to multiple ovules. Ovules contain egg cell. o Syncarpous ovary: many ovules (e.g cucumbers) Shoot apical meristem-generative to reproductive organs  Turns from leaf primordium into flower primordium  E.g arabidopsis thaliana. Is the evolution of flower originated from modified leaves? Different genes of rings: carpel>stamen>petal>petal Shoot apical meristem>flower primordium? ABC model of flower development A,B,C genes specify the four different flower organ types  Each of these genes is active in two adjacent rings of cells  A=sepal organ  A+B = petals organ  B+C=stamen organ  C=carpel organ 2) plant sex is not as boring as animal sex some plants can have missing sepals or petals  E.g sarcandra: no sepal, no petal  Chickweed: no petal  Golden saxifrage: no sepal  Meadow rue: no petal, no female organ. 6% of angiosperms are unisexual=dioecious flowers. (one male plant, and one female plant only
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