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Lecture 11

2013BIOAO2 Lecture 11.docx

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Biological Sciences
Course Code
Ivana Stehlik

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2013BIOAO2 S Module 1 January 7 ~Feb1 2013 Midterm date: Monday Febuary 4 2013. 5-7pm Module 2: Begins on Tuesday Feb 5 . th Total: 12 lectures Lecture outline: 1-2: Tree of life-plants 3-4 Plant cells and plant tissues 5-6. From seed to tree 7-8. From tree to seed 9. Transport in plants 10. Plant nutrition and soils 11. Plant defense 12. Plant life on the edge. Lecture 11 notes (plant defense) A) Plants feed the world, but they do not really want to do so . . . Herbivory: the most widespread plant-animal interaction. Often least visible. Insect miners: between epidermis Mollusks Reptiles Small mammals Large mammals B) Plants defense mechanism Tissues and organs Chemical defense Primary vs Secondary-toxin compounds  Primary compounds-products of photosynthesis, protein synthesis such as carbohydrates, proteins, starches, cellulose. Simple essential to normal cellular function and life in general  Secondary compounds: products have no known direct function in basic metabolism. o Huge complexity of compounds, strict control of syntheiss o Chemical weapons agaisnt herbivores include toxins: saponine, cyanide, atropine, strychinine, caffeine, cannabinol, mustard oil, morphine, quinine. Defense mechanism can be systemic-always present or induced-sometimes present. Physical defense: mostly systemic. Chemical defense: often induced. There are 4 types of defense mechanism: 1. Systemic physical  Thorns& spines.  Trichomes: hair to prevent exposure to usn, used against herbivore  Passive hiding. Lithops.-pebble plants in Kalahari desert making them hardly eaten. They are filled with water and more apparent after rain when the flower shows.  Active hiding: touching leaves that fold in which it is triggered by electric current where signals travel through phloem  Make-believe: look like it’s eaten. Mimics insect eggs. (e.g passion flower, virginia water leaves. White blotches intepret for other insects have eaten it already) 2. Systemic chemical  Cyanide in Bracken fern Cyanogenic glycosides ( Pteridium aquilinum). This poisons cattle and cause blindness/cancer to mammals  Poison ivy (toxicdendron radicans). Leaves of 3 with longer leaf stalk. Oil on your skins + phototoxin.  Systematic physical and chemical: stinging nettle: urtica dioica. Has thorns and pois
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