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2013BIOAO2 COMBINATION Lecture Notes01-05 .docx

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOA02H3
Professor
Ivana Stehlik
Semester
Winter

Description
2013BIOAO2 S Module 1 January 7 ~Feb1 2013 Midterm date: Monday Febuary 4 2013. 5-7pm Module 2: Begins on Tuesday Feb 5 . th Total: 12 lectures Lecture outline: 1-2: Tree of life-plants 3-4 Plant cells and plant tissues 5-6. From seed to tree 7-8. Freom tree to seed 9. Transport in plants 10. Plant nutrition and soils 11. Plant defense 12. Plant life on the edge. Lecture 1 notes (1-2. Tree of life- plants) Lecture 1-2 outline: A) Basal tree of life B) Bryophytes- Liverwort, mosses, hornworts C) Lycophytes D) Ferns E) Gymnosperm F) Angiosperm A)Basal tree of life Evolution of plants Green algae Liverwort (6000 species) Mosses Hornworts (100 species) Lycophytes Ferns Gymnosperms Angiosperms ( most abundant) The origins of Bryophyes are unknown B) Bryophytes: liverworts (marchantia polymorpha) Male reproductive structure: Antheridia, male liverwort, umbrella shaped Female reproductive structure: Archegonia, female liverwort, cloudy shaped 10cm mosses, largest diversity of bryophyte group. Peat mosses in North canada. Hornworts: flat body tissues which is smaller than liverworts •Gametophyte •Fertilizationof •throughmitosis, gamete gametesegg and •zygote=mitosis spermis produced •Embryo Haploid Diploid generation (n) generation(2n) Diploid Haploid Generation generation(n) (2n) •sporophyte->meiosis •Embryo->mitosis •spore •sporophyte •spore->mitosis (germination) •Gametophyte Figure 2. so all are mitosis except from sporophyte into spore. Haploid generation of mosses need water to fertilize. Zygote then embryo. Spermatozoid (n) (male) have flagella.  Antheridia=male  Archegonia=female egg Protonema (n) then young developing gametophyte (n) either male or female. In broyophytes, gametophyte feed sporophyte, meaning sporophyte depends on gametophyte. Sporophyte does not photosynthesize. Spermatozoid travel in short distance because it’s only in water ( water disperal). Spores(n) and capsule(2n) travel in wind dispersal. Male gamete (spermatozoid) self propel in distance. Broyophytes HAVE NO CUTICLE. They lose and take up water very quickly.  No vascular system  No cuticle=waxy layer htat helps take in/lose water  Consequence of not having cuticle: uptake/loss of water on surface, live in watery moist habitates. Reproduction in water, can survive total dessication=even if it dries up for a few months, if you add water, the moss will rejuvinate.  Vascular tissue=xylem(inner) and phloem(outer) only in vascular plants o Xylem: up o Phloem: down ( as in floww) Lecture 2 notes (1-2. Tree of life- plants) Lecture 1-2 outline: G) Basal tree of life H) Bryophytes- Liverwort, mosses, hornworts I) Lycophytes J) Ferns K) Gymnosperm L) Angiosperm C) Lycophytes-vascular plants First lycophyte: Phanerozoic, Paleozoic era time. They were primative and branched. How they conquered of dry land by vascular plants:  Cuticle  Stomata  Vascular tissue  Sporanges Rhymia and Zosterophyllum are examples of Lycophytes 420 million years old! Cell strurcture: from top to bottom  Cuticle, upper epidermis, pallisade layer, spongy mesophyll, lower epidermis, cuticle Lycophytes example: Clubmosses (400 species), Quillworts (150 species), Spikemosses (700 species). Althought they have the word mosses, they are vascular plants. mosses in general are nonvascular plants. Clubmosses, Quillworts, Spikemosses are special kinds of mosses because they are vascular plants. Vascular plants are plants that have phloem and xylem which are efficient methods to uptake nutrients and water. D) Ferns Exist during the carboniferous~Jurrasic (Paleozoic~Phanerozoic years) Whisk ferns(2 species) and allies Horsetails (15 species), true ferns (12,000 species). Today true ferns take up 75% of speciesin tropics, Tiny aquatic AZOLLA ferns are the WORLD’S SMALLEST FERNS. Through burial pressure, heat time: how peat turns into anthracite coal: peat>lignite>sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal, anthracite coal. Life cycle of ferns  Let’s begin with germinating spore  through meiosis, germinatingspore (2n) has spores(n) (n) C(groups ofsori gametophyte (n) sporangium) • egg (n),sperm (n) Mature leaf sporophyte (2n), fertilizes into sporophyte (2n) Embryo (2n) Developing frond sporophyte (2n), Gametophyte (n), sporophyte (2n) Developing root sporophyte (2n) In both generations, the sporophyte and gametophyte are photosynthetic The sporangium and spore are wind disperal over potentially long distance. The Fertilization of the egg and sperm into an embryo is water dispersal Two generations are independent. Male gemete (spermatozoid) self propel over short distance. E) Gymnosperm First gymnosperms are carboniferous time era. There are 5 main groups: EGG WC! (Ephedra, ginko,gnetum, welnitschia, Conifer) 1) Conifers-700~900 species. Largest and heaviest organism on earth! 2) Ginkgo (1 species). Unchanged for years. 3) Ephedra-35 species. 4) Welnitschia-1 species. 5) Gnetum-30~35 years. Linked to angiosperms Conifers are cone bearer for secual reproduction. Female cones have spine, male cones have pollen grain. Gymnosperms means naked seeds. Under desiccation-prone spore.~ bryophytes, lycophytes, ferns Under drought –resistant seeds. Plug wing. Have vascular bundles, stoma, cuticle. Wood=gymnosperm=naked seed. F) Angiosperm-flowering plants Jurassic era. Cretaceous has a big angiosperm radiation. Life cycle of flowering seed plants:  Mature apple tree sporophyte (2n) > meiosis > flower (2n), egg (n), pollen male gametophyte (n)>pollen transfer to stigma> pollen travel to pollen tube (n)> pollen travel to egg (n) and fertilization happens > embryo (2n) > developing apple (2n)> seed (2n) > developing seedling (2n)> Mature apple tree sporophyte (2n)  So only the pollen, egg, pollen tube are (n=haploid) Basic flower organs  Male: anther + filament = stamen  Female: stigma + style +ovary = pistil  Petal  Sepal (sepals cover petals) Key evolutionary inventios: Green algae Liverwort (6000 species) Mosses Hornworts (100 species) Lycophytes Ferns Gymnosperms Angiosperms ( most abundant) Figure 1. Cuticle & stomata &vascular systems developed in lycophytes. Seeds & wood developed in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. Flowers & Double fertilization (when the pollen enters the ovary, one sperm fertilizes the egg (n), the other sperm fertilizes the central cell (2n) )developed only in angiosperms. The length of gemetophytic cycle phases: decreasing order. The life span of gametophyte within a plance. (as gametophyte decreases, sporophyte life cycle length increases).  Bryophyte>fern>gametophyte&angiosperm  Bryophyte: gametophyte feed sporophyte  Fern: both photosynthetic gametophyte and sporophyte  Angiosperm&gymnosperm: sporophyte feed gametophyte Pollen and cuticles are found in both gametophyte and sporophyte generation. Naked & covered seeds are less dependent on water. Dependency on water: in decreasing order:  In bryophytes: Sporophytes>Gametophytes>spermatozoids>spores  In ferns: sporophytes>spermatozoids>spores.  In angiosperm&gymnosperms: less dependent. Lecture 3 notes (Plant cells and plant tissues) A) Undifferentiated cells: meristems Plants have indeterminate growth because plants need meristem.  Limiting factors: soil nutrieds, bug, weather Humans have determinate growth because they have stem cells.  Limiting factors: number of cells. By dividing, meristematic cells give rise to more meristematic cells and specialized & differntiated cells.  Primary meristematic cells: shoot apical meristem (SAM) and root apical meristem (RAM)  Secondary meristem: many different ones, different locations. o Axillary meristem, Lateral meristem, Adventitous meristem, Vascular cambium, cork cambium. Shoot apical mersitem  Leaf primordia protects shoot apical meristem.  From inside to outside: apical meristem>young leaves (leaf primordia)>rudimentary leaf>latueral, auxillary bud. Root apical meristem  3 sections from top to bottom: zone of cell differentiation>zone of cell elongation> zone of cell division.  Apical meristem and root cap B) Differentiated cells Simple tissue: tissue made of one cell type Complex tissue: tissue made of more than one cell type i) Simple plant tissues a) Parenchyma cells- most common cell types. Alive. Thin-walled, least specialized, often block-shaped main functions: space filler in vascular bundles , photosynthesis (cholorenchyma – parenchyma with chloroplast) , storage of water and nutrients in roots, leaves, seeds, fruits (prot
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