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BIOA02 MODULE 1 LEC 8: From Tree to Seed

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

BIOA02 MODULE 1 LEC 8 From Tree to SeedJanuary 26 2012sageevolutionary transformation to accommodate for insect pollinatorspastes pollen onto back of the beethird way that plants avoid being pollinated self incompatibilitybiochemical reactionfemale can tell if the pollen is produced by thesame individual same genetic setupself pollenfemale stops the fertilization by selfrecognizationself incompatibility can happen at different stagescan even hinder pollen to germinate early incompatibilityown pollen grain does start germinating growing towards ovule but cells somewhere in the style recognize own pollen and the pollen tube would be plugged to prevent it from growing intermediate incompatibilitypollen grain has reached all the way down to the ovule and is intersected there late incompatibilityself incompatibility occurs frequently in plant kingdom and found commonly in fruits we eatself incompatibility is often mixed with the other preventions some plants need vectors to exchange gametes therefore plants manipulate their environment to do thisflowers have adaptations that have evolved in order to have pollen picked up and deposited on another flowercan be directed and nondirectednondirected are done by nonliving vectors ie winddirected are done by living organism ie insectsflowers the key to the large number of species of angiospermsburst of radiation coincided with burst of species creation of major pollinator species of plantsexplosion in speciation in flies butterflies and beetles after explosion in speciation in plants angiospermstwo forces in the evolution of angiospermsin order to pass on its genes each plants need to produce two seedsassurance of seed setnot really concern of the quality of the offspringinbreeding avoidanceto create highquality offspringforces are done by adapting perfectly to pollinatorsspecialization onto pollinator largely animalsroot of how a flower is constructed so flower uptake and pollen deposition is optimalplant must perfectly adapt to the senses of the pollinators ie flowers in the colour range in which animals see the world some can smell and some cannot smell some flowers mimic touch of animals
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