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BIOA02 MODULE 2 Lec 15 The Endocrine System.doc

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Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

BIOA02 MODULE 2 Lec 15 The Endocrine SystemFebruary 10 2012adrenal gland has an outer cortex and an inner medullathe inner medulla releases adrenalin major stress hormonethe cortex produces steroid hormones one of which is cortisolendocrine system works by secreting hormones through the blood or extracellular fluidresponses can be rapid or more longer lastinginsert Slide 2TYPE OF CELL SIGNALLINGTypes of Cell Signalling Circulating Hormonesendocrine gland contains cells which synthesize and secrete hormones which diffuse into the extracellular fluids and the bloodhormones then move from the blood to the target tissue and they act on the target tissue through receptors which then leads to second messenger activation systems or elevationalteration in gene transcriptioninsert Slide 3Neuroendocrine Signallinghormones can also originate from nervescalled neurohormonesrather than the cell of a gland producing and secreting hormone the nerves are secreting and producing hormonesthese hormones are secreted into the extracellular fluid and diffuse into the blood and to the target tissuehypothalamus has neurons in it which produce two hormones oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone ADHreleased from nerves directly into bloodnerve terminals are found in the posterior pituitaryinsert Slide 4Paracine and Autocrine Signallingparacrine signallingendocrine cell will release a hormone but the hormone simply diffuses through the extracellular fluid to another cell type where it has its effect by interacting with the receptor for that specific hormone thats on its target cellhormone doesnt travel through the blood it travels from one cell type to another cell type in the extracellular fluidautocrine signalinghormone feeds back and has an effect on the very cell that releases itexamples particular ceils that release acetylcholine function in the paracrine manner and dopamine functions autocrine mannerautocrine substance can inhibit or accelerates the release of the paracrine substanceinsert slide 5Cell Signalling Regulationfour major types of signaling1endocrine signaling endocrine gland makes and releases a hormone and its transported in the blood to its target tissue2neuroendocrine signaling same as endocrine signaling but hormones are made and released from the neurons3paracrine signaling diffusion through the extracellular fluid4autocrine signaling diffusion through the extracellular fluidinsert slide 6TYPE OF HORMONES four major types of hormones amines peptides steroids and fatty acidsAminesamines tyrosinebasedseries of reaction that produces three hormones called catecholaminescontain catechol groups benzene group with two hydroxides and an amine groupyou being with phenylalanine and then go to tyrosine and end up with three substances dopamine norepinephrine noradrenaline and epinephrine adrenalineepinephrinesurrounds kidneysadrenal gland is wrapped around proportions of the kidneysdopamine and norepinephrine can function as neurotransmitters and epinephrine doesnt function as a neurotransmitternorepinephrine and epinephrine can function as hormones and dopamine cannot function as a hormoneinsert slide 7Peptidescan also be hormones angiotensinogen is converted into peptides called angiotensinliver produces a protein called angiotensinogenalways circulating in the blood
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