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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

LECTURE 8 (chapter 51) Overview: A Balancing Act o All organisms need water, its the solvent for all of the bodies floating around in different organisms o Organisms also evolved in salt water (ions) o Internal fluids have very close approximation to sea water in terms of the ionic concentrations o Homeostasis in terms of ionic concentrations o Active transport follow by osmosis o Passive transport followed by the movement of water osmosis Water Balance Crucial for Animal Cells o Hyper-osmotic: has more solute, more concentrated than the cytoplasm of the cell so water will move from areas of higher water potential to lower water potential, lower solute concentration to higher solute concentration o As the solute concentration increases, the solute potential becomes more negative and thats all because pure water has a water potential of zero because there are no solutes dissolved in the water. Water potential=solute potential + pressure potential o If water potential is 0 then solute potential is also 0 since we ignore pressure potential o As soon as you start adding solutes to the water then you have less opportunity that water isnt free to move or solutes are not as free to move theyre dissolved and interacting with the water molecules o So consequently as soon as you add solutes, you increase the concentration in the water, the solute potential will become negative so the highest water potential you can get is 0 o If solute potential becomes negative then so does water potential as more material gets dissolved
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