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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

LECTURE 10 (Chapter 44)-Nervous Systems Overview: command and control center What cells are unique to the nervous system? o In the nervous system, the nerve cellsneurons are unique and are unique to the animal kingdom and so we see their function only in multicellular animals o all animals have nerve cells except for sponges o sponges are that first multicellular group that are barely animal-like o the upshot into how we can distinguish one group from the next and watch the evolutionary sequences different animals developed more elaborated nervous systems is looking at how theyre organized and how the information may get processed and how much information may be able to be processed o neurons carry out 3 jobs: receive information from sensory or cells that are picking up information from the environment or other parts of the body they encode that information and allow for interpretation and integration of that information they transmit the information in a form that performs the appropriate response for the stimulus that has been picked up from the environment Organization of Neurons o Nerve net: network of neurons all around the body that allow this animal to respond equally in all directions o Radially symmetrical organisms are not bilateral therefore they dont have sephalization the formation of a head concentration of nerve tissue. They act equally in all directions. o Concentration of neurons in the head region(brain) for bilateral organisms (worms) Ganglia: concentration of nerve cells but not as big as the brain
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