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Lecture 14

Lec14 - The Nervous System.doc

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Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

The Nervous SystemSlide OnetopicsFunctions of the nervous systemoEarly experiments on nerves and axons were done on the giant axons of squidsworms which were relatively easy to dissect and examineOrganization of the nervous systemCells of the nervous systemResting membrane potentialAction potential generationAction potential propagationRefractory periodsSynaptic transmissionSlide Twofunctions of the nervous systemBeginning stimulusfinal effectoReceptionReceptorsSensorsoTransmissionNervesNeuronsoIntegrationGangliaBrainoResponseMotor nervesEffectors Cells sense things in the external or internal environmentoeg lightmovementblood pressuretemperaturepH levels etcOnce sensed causes a transmission to be sent into the central nervous system via an afferent sensory pathwayInformation arrives in central nervous systemintegrated by interneurons intermediates between the inout signalsTransmission of signal out of the central nervous system through an efferent pathway to various organsglandsmuscles so that they elicit an appropriate responseThe nervous system that sends things in and out of the brain is called the peripheral nervous system PNSThe spinal cord and the brain encompasses the central nervous systemSlide Threereception sensory systemsTo cause an effect there must first be a sensory stimuliDiverse array of sensory systemoUsed to monitor internal and external environmentsoSome are complex but many are simpleRange from single cells to complex sense organsExamples of stimulus receptorsoSent through a signal transduction pathwayopening of ion channelschange in membrane potentialChemical stimulusOdour molecules in environmentOxygenCarbon Dioxide levels in bloodPressure stimulusMechanical receptorPressing on body from outsideBlood Pressure being sent
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