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Lecture 7

Lecture 7: Mitochondria

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Tanya Da Sylva

Mitochondria evolution Arose from phagocytosis of aerobic prokaryote Can divide in the cell Mitochondrial fission powerhouse of the cell Site of aerobic respirations Mitochondria functions Site of aerobic respiration Utilizes oxygen to extract energy from macromolecules and converting it to ATP -Primarily from glucose: ATP production. Mitochondria ATP production We use 2 X 10 molecules of ATP a day -ATP: cells energy source: energy is released when ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP Amount of mitochondria in cells depends on energy needs many mitochondria in: muscle cells, liver cells, fat cells, plant cells & sperm Mitochondria Structure Usually sausage-shaped but can be spherical (early embryos) or elongate, threadlike (fibroblasts) -0.2 -2 um in cross-sectional diameter & 1-4 um in length (similar in size to bacteria) Size and number of mitochondria reflect energy needs of the cell Dynamic structures Change shape, move from place to place in cytoplasm Mitochondria can fuse with one another, or split in two. The balance between fusion and fission is likely a major determinant of mitochondrial number, length, and degree of interconnection. Inner and outer mitochondrial membranes enclose two spaces -The matrix and the Intermembrane space Outer mitochondrial membrane is outer boundary Inner mitochondrial membrane subdivided into 2 interconnected domains Inner boundary membrane Cristae: where the machinery for ATP is located Phase-contrast light microscope can be picked up Bright field stain: To see inner membrane structure light microscope is not enough: TEM, SEM Outer Mitochondrial Membrane (OMM) ~ 50% protein: very porous Porin proteins large channels : Bacteria-like Beta pleated sheets. Allows very large molecules in Inner Mitochondrial Membrane (IMM) ~ 75% protein Unusual lipid composition -No cholesterol, rich in cardiolipin: typical of bacterial plasma membranes -like bacterial plasma membranes
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