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Lecture 8

Lecture 8: Chloroplast

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Biological Sciences
Tanya Da Sylva

Lecture 8: Chloroplasts: First organisms were heterotrophs Needed nutrients from environment -Autotrophs: manufacture organic nutrients from inorganic molecules (CO2) About 2.7 million years ago, cyanobacteria used electrons from water to produce oxygen as a waste product Synthesis of complex molecules from CO2 requires large input of energy Chemoautotrophs: use energy from inorganic molecules. -Photoautotrophs: use radiant energy to make organic compounds Photosynthesis: converts energy from sunlight into chemical energy stored in carbohydrates. Low energy electrons are removed from a donor molecule : CO2+ H2O +light ->(CH2) + O2 Chloroplast Structure and Function Photosynthesis in eukaryotes takes place in the chloroplast, a cytoplasmicorganelle Arose from phagocytosis of photosynthetic cyanobacteria Uses energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose Plants, eukaryotic algae, some protists and several prokaryotes Chloroplasts have a double membrane. The outer membrane contains porins and is permeable to large molecules. www.notesolution.comOuter envelope membrane contains porin proteins Inner envelope membrane is highly impermeable: requires transporters -Thylakoid: arranged into grana (stacks of thylakoids) -Stroma lamellae: attach grana -Stroma: inside fluid ThylakoidsInternal membrane system The inner membrane of a chloroplast is folded into flattened sacs (thylakoids), arranged in stacks called grana Thylakoid membranes contain a large percentage of glycolipids, which make the membrane highly fluid for diffusion of proteins complexes. Membrane has 75:25 protein : lipid ration Thylakoid sacs have lumen inside Stroma lamellae flattened membrane structures that connect thylakoidsfrom different grana Stroma Contains DNA and ribosomes, tRNA Chloroplast DNA encodes for 100 genes, but most chloroplast proteins encoded by nuclear DNA Chloroplast proteins must be imported
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