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BIOB10 - Cell Specialization.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Rene Harrison

Cell Specialization Sperm: Function: SWIM!, bind & penetrate egg Cell Specializations: 1) Flagella –MTs and MT motors (ATPase) 2) ↑↑ # of Mitochondria – ATP 3) Sperm Receptor – fertilin – integrin protein 4) Acrosome – secretory lysosome – secreted via kinesin along MTs 5) Small Cell with Condensed streamlined head – - supercoiled DNA to make small nucleus, ↑↑ # histone proteins Egg: Function: Packed with mRNA (for transcription factors, etc) for early development, will initiatecell division shortly after fertilization, can bind sperm. Cell Specializations: 1) BIG cell 2) ↑↑# Ribosomes – translation 3) Integrin – binds to fertilin 4) Cell Division –mitotic spindle, contractile ring 5) Coating- secretes protective proteins on outside Neuron: Function: early in development: send out migratory axons towards target cells (synapses) -after differentiation: nerve impulses and formation and secretion of secretory vesicle Cell Specializations: 1) Cell migration machinery – integrins, actin, Arp2/3 2) Nerve impulses – Na+/K+ pump, channels, etc. 3) ↑↑# Mitochondria - ATP 4) Secretion machinery – MTs (+MAPs) and kinesin, neurofilaments, actin & myosin V Skin epithelial cell: Keratinocyte: Function: provides a continuously renewing, strong, waterproof surface to protect body from environment- function in wound healing Cell Specializations: 1) Hemi-desmosomes – integrin attachment to basement membrane (with plectin & IF’s) -Signals to divide – division machinery -Survival signals – lose contact with ECM- – apoptosis, keratin release 2) Desmosomes – cadherins & IF’s – for mechanical strength 3) Migrate over wound – migration machinery Intestinal epithelial cell: Function: secretion digestive enzymes, absorb digested contents, seal body from harsh digestive juices in gut Cell Specializations: 1) Hemi-desmosomes – integrin attachment to basement membrane (with plectins & IF’s) 2) Secretion machinery – digestive enzymes – ER/Golgi/secretory vesicles, MTs + kinesin 3) Microvilli – actin, fimbrin, myosin I 4) Tight Junctions – occludin and claudins – seal Respiratory tract epithelial cell: Function: secretes mucous, moves mucous out of the body, barrier between air and internal tissues Cell Specializations: 1) Hemi–desmosomes – integrin attachment tobasement membrane (+ plectin & IF’s) 2) Secretion machinery – mucous proteins - ER/Golgi/secretory vesicles, MTs + kinesin 3) Cilia –MTs, MT motor (ATPase) 4) ↑↑# Mitochondria - ATP 5) Tight Junctions – occludin and clau
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