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BIOB10 - Lecture 1.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Rene Harrison

BIOB10 Lecture 1 Lecture 1 Tuesday September 3 2013 First 8 slides refer to pdf:  Administrative and Syllabus info  Lecture – based Exam o Slide 9: Cell hierarchy Slide 10: Fetus  Early round of cell division first and then these cells get info – differentiation o Ectoderm o Signals all through proteins that send info to other proteins to create cells differently  We have over 20 differentiated cells when we are a fetus  Most genes are in the nucleus and are silent Slide 11: How does a cell Function  Proteins catalyze reactions  Make enzymes that catalyze reactions  Structural component of cell  At plasma membrane making receptor channels  In target cells receive hormones  Signaling proteins to set on an action in target cell  Turn on genes to make other proteins  Look at slide 11 for diagram on other functions Slide 12: Diagram  Diagram of the cell  Biosynthetic pathway – many proteins are made through this  Most proteins travel through here (ER and Golgi)  Subset of proteins are directed to proteins  Sperm and osteoplasts…..  Cytosol is the material that bathes the organelles, holds them in place, in between organelles o Packed with proteins Slide 13: Course goals Slide 14: Intro BIOB10 Lecture 1 Slide 15: Early History – Microscopy  Robert Hooke (1665) o Invented the microscope o Coined the term “cell” studying cork (prison cells)  Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1665-1675) o Was looking at pond water o Came up with term “animalcules”  Matthias Schleiden, botanist (1838)/ Theodor Schwann, zoologist (1839), Rudolf Virchow (1855) o Cell Theory:  1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells.  2. The cell is the structural unit of life for all organisms  3. Cells can arise only by division from a preexisting cell. Slide 16: Basic Properties of Cells  STUDY THE ASSIGNED FIGURE ON THIS SLIDE (old textbook)  Cells that function together are usually spatially opposed to each other  Things are constantly moving around in the cytoplasm Slide 17: Animal Cell Diagram  STUDY THIS DIAGRAM (old textbook)  Slide 18: Basic Properties of Cells 1. Cells are highly complex and organized 2. Cells possess genetic program and the means to use it Slide 19: Basic Properties of Cells 1. Cells are highly complex and organized 2. Cells possess genetic program and the means to use it  Central dogma: transcription and translation machinery o Genes – proteins o Prokaryotes and eukaryotes both have this Slide 20: Basic Properties of cells 1. Cells are highly complex and organized 2. Cells possess genetic program and the means to use it o Eukaryotic – mitosis/meiosis 3. Cells are capable of producing more of themselves – mitosis and meiosis o IMAGE IS OF MITOSIS (mitotic spindle) Slide 21: Basic Properties of Cells 4. Cells acquire and utilize energy to develop and maintain complexity o Ultimate form of energy: Sun which is then converted to sugar (photosynthesis done by chloroplast)  Sun  carbohydrates  ATP BIOB10 Lecture 1 o ATP is from mitochondria and is the actual energy molecule 5. Cells carry out many mechanical reactions o Enzymes accelerate reactions o Enzymes (proteins) – use ATP 6. Cells engage in numerous mechanical activities o Intracellular transport Slide 22: Image  Fluorescent image of migrating cell  Cell is moving forward  Broad front edge and narrow trailing edge  Many cells have the capacity
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