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Lecture 11

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Stephen Reid

Lecture 11: Cell Specializations Sperm: Function: SWIM! bind & dissolve egg coat Cell Specializations: 1) Flagella: MTs and MT motors (ATPase) 2) Increase # of mitochondria = More ATP 3) Acrosome: secretory lysosomes: secreted via kinesin along MTs Egg: Function: Packed with mRNA (for transcription factors, etc) for early development, will initiate cell division shortly after fertilization, can bind sperm. Cell Specializations: 1) Increase #ribosomes- increase translation 2) Integrin: Binds to fertilin (on sperm) 3) Cell division: Mitotic spindle, contractile ring 4) Coating : Secretes protective proteins on outside. Neuron: Cell Specializations: 1) Cell migration machinery: integrins, actin, Arp2/3 2) Nerve impulses – Na/K pump, channels, etc 3) Increase mitochondria = Increase ATP 4) Secretion machinery: MTs (+MAPs) and kinesin, neurofillaments, actin and myosin V Function: early in development: send out migratory axons towards target cells (synapses) -after differentiation: nerve impulses and formation and secretion of secretory vesicles Intestinal epithelial cell: Functions: Secretion of digestive enzymes -Absorption of digested contents -Keeps digestive juices away from bloodstream Cell Specializations: 1) Hemi-desmosomes: integrin attachement to basement membrane 2) Desmosomes: cadherins and IF’s for mechanical strength 3) Tight Junctions: occluding and claudins: Seal 4) Secretion machinery: ER/ Golgi secretory vesicles, MTs + kinesin 5) Microvilli: actin, fibrin, myosin I Skeletal muscle : Skeletal muscle cell development: fusion of many muscle cells Function: contraction for body movements Cell Specializations: 1) Contractile machinery: F-actin (thin filaments) and myson II (thick filaments) – ATPase 2) Increase mitochondria= increase ATP 3) Sacromere needs increase Calcium -> increase extensive SER (sarcoplasmic reticulum)- Ca+ stores Cardiac muscle : Function: synchronized contraction to propel blood through heart Cell Specializations: 1) Contractile machinery: F-actin (thin filaments) and Myosin II (thick filaments) – ATP ase 2) Increase mitochondria= increase ATP 3) Sarcromere needs increase Ca  increase extensive SER  increase Ca+ storage 4) Gap junctions: connexion proteins forming connexion channel Liver cell : Functions: production of bile proteins -detoxification of bloodstream Cell Specializations: 1) Secretion machinery: bile etc. ER/Golgi/secretory vesicles, Mts + kinesin 2) Increase #SER  Increase Detox Macrophage: Functions: migration from bloodstream to all tissues-phagocytosis of foreign particles and dead cells Cell Specializations: 1) Binding to endothelial cells: L- Selectin and integrins 2) Invasion: secretion of MMP’s (matrix matalo proteases) 3) Migration: cell migration machinery 4) Phagocytosis: receptors, signalling proteins and actin for engulfment/ internalization 5) Phagolysosome formation: MTs and dynein: increase # lysosomes Studying Proteins What do we want to know about proteins? •Primary structure (sequence) •Secondary/tertiary structure •Protein localization •Protein function Determining Primary Structure 1. Extrapolate from genomic sequence 2. Manually sequence –Requires
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