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Lecture 8

Lecture 8

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Biological Sciences
Rene Harrison

Lecture 8110111 Chloroplasts and Other Organelles ChloroplastArose from phagocytosis cyanobacteriaCAN DIVIDE BY FUSIONFunction1 Site of photosynthesis Utilizes energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose 2 In plants eukaryotic algae some protists and several prokaryotes SLIDE 7 SLIDE 8 SLIDE 9 Slide 7 Bright field arabdiopsis Slide 8 TEM Slide 9 Confocal of GFPthylakoid proteinChloroplasts THYLAKOID SACSARRANGED INTO GRANA STACKS OF THYLAKOIDS STROMA LAMELLAEATTACH GRANA Outer Envelope Membraney Contain porin moleculeslarge channelsy Allow very large molecules throughInner envelope membrane y Highly impermeable requires transporters ThylakoidsInternal Membrane Systemy Membranous sacs arranged in stacks called grana y MEMBRANE HAS 7525 PROTEIN LIPID RATIOinside y Thylakoid sacs have lumeny Stroma lamellaeflattened membrane structures that connectStromay Contains DNA and ribosomes tRNA y Chloroplast DNA encodes for 100 genes y However 90 of chloroplast proteins are encoded by nuclear DNA y Therefore many chloroplast proteins must be importedtargeted to chloroplasts y Chloroplast proteins are translated on free ribosomes in cytosoly Posttranslational uptake of proteins in chloroplasts
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