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Biological Sciences
Rene E Harrison

BIOB10 CHAPTER 2 NOTES Covalent bonds Pair of electrons are shared between pair of atoms For example atoms joined by a single bond are able to rotate relative to one another whereas the atoms of double and triple bonds lack this ability Molecules such as water that have an asymmetric distribution of charge or dipole are referred to as polar molecules Polar molecules of biological importance contain one or more electronegative atoms usually O N andor S Molecules that lack electronegative atoms and strongly polarized bonds such as molecules that consist entirely of carbon and hydrogen atoms are said to be nonpolar 1 Oxygen atoms have eight protons in their nucleus How many electrons do they have How many orbitals are in the inner electron shell How many electrons are in the outer shell How many more electrons can the outer shell hold before it is lled 2 Compare and contrast a sodium atom and a sodium ion a double bond and a triple bond an atom of weak and strong electronegativity the electron distribution around an oxygen atom bound to another oxygen atom and an oxygen atom bound to two hydrogen atoms Noncovalent bonds Noncovalent bonds do not depend on shared electrons but rather on attractive forces between atoms having an opposite charge Individual noncovalent bonds are weak about 1 to 5 kcalmol and are thus readily broken and reformed Because of their ability to interact with water polar molecules such as sugars and amino acids described shortly are said to be hydrophilic or water loving When nonpolar compounds are mixed with water the nonpolar hydrophobic water fearing molecules are forced into aggregates which minimizes their exposure to the polar surroundings This association of nonpolar molecules is called a hydrophobic interaction 1 Describe some of the properties that distinguish covalent and noncovalent bonds 2 Why do polar molecules such as table sugar dissolve so readily in water Why do fat droplets form on the surface of an aqueous solution Why does sweating help cool the body
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