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Lecture 7

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Rene Harrison

Mitochondria evolution Arose from phagocytosis of aerobic prokaryote Can divide in the cell Mitochondrial fission powerhouse of the cell Site of aerobic respirationsMitochondria functions Site of aerobic respiration Utilizes oxygen to extract energy from macromolecules and converting it to ATP Primarily from glucose ATP productionMitochondria ATP production 26We use 2 X 10 molecules of ATP a dayATP cells energy source energy is released when ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP Amount of mitochondria in cells depends on energy needs many mitochondria in muscle cells liver cells fat cells plant cellsspermMitochondria Structure Usually sausageshaped but can be spherical early embryos or elongate threadlike fibroblasts02 2 um in crosssectional diameter14 um in length similar in size to bacteria Size and number of mitochondria reflect energy needs of the cell Dynamic structures Change shape move from place to place in cytoplasm Mitochondria can fuse with one another or split in two The balance between fusion and fission is likely a major determinant of mitochondrial number length and degree of interconnection Inner and outer mitochondrial membranes enclose two spacesThe matrix and the Intermembrane space Outer mitochondrial membrane is outer boundary Inner mitochondrial membrane subdivided into 2 interconnected domainsInner boundary membraneCristae where the machinery for ATP is locatedPhasecontrast light microscope can be picked upBright field stainTo see inner membrane structure light microscope is not enough TEM SEMOuter Mitochondrial Membrane OMM50 protein very porous Porin proteins large channelsBacterialike Beta pleated sheets Allows very large molecules inInner Mitochondrial Membrane IMM75 protein Unusual lipid compositionNo cholesterol rich in cardiolipin typical of bacterial plasma membraneslike bacterial plasma membranes
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