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Biology part 2 lecture notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Patrick Hall

Biology lecture notesLecture 1 Chapter 31Animal origins What is an animal o Multicellular eukaryotes o Ingestive heterotrophs o Can reproduce sexually with dominant diploid stageo 2 unique cell typesnerve cells muscle cells that permit movement o Unique gene families called homeoboxcontaining genes with similar organization and function o Have common gene sequencesMulticellular o Lack cell walls o Have cytoskeleton for internal structure support o Held together with Extra cellular matrix proteins Intercellular junctiondesmosomes gap junctions tight junctions Ingestive heterotrophs internal digestion o They eat others cannot produce food themselves digest internallyReproduce sexuallyo Spend most time in diploid stage less in haploid stage2 unique cell typeso Nerve cells impulse conduction o Muscle cells movementUnique homeoboxcontaining genes o They have family of genes homeobox genes o Role in regulating development turns on and off other genesAnimals have common gene sequences shows relations between other animalsShared traits relate to ancestors6 traits of body plans are used to describe animals o Symmetry o Tissues o Body cavities o Development patterns o Segmentation o External appendagesSymmetry if u cut it in half will u have a mirror imageo No symmetryasymmetric eg sponges
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