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BIOB32H3 (80)


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Biological Sciences
Kenneth Welch

Articulations A Classification of Joints Articulations • Articulations • Where two bones interconnect • Immovable joints • Synarthroses, or bony • Slightly moveable joints • Amphiarthroses, or fibrous / cartilagenous • Freely moveable joints • Diarthroses, or synovial Synarthroses (immovable joints) • Four major types • Suture = skull bones bound together by dense connective tissue • Gomphosis = teeth bound to bony sockets by periodontal ligaments • Synchondrosis = two bones bound by rigid cartilaginous bridge • Syntosis = two bones completely fused Amphiarthroses (slightly movable joints) • Two major types • Syndesmosis = bones connected by a ligament • Symphysis = bone separated by fibrocartilage Diarthroses (freely movable joints) • Bony surfaces enclosed within articular capsule • Bony surfaces covered by articular cartilage • Bony surfaces lubricated by synovial fluid • Structures include • Menisci • Fat pads • Accessory ligaments • Bursae Articular Form and Function Dynamic motion • Dynamic motion • Linear motion • Angular motion • Rotation • Joints classified based on type of motion permitted • Monaxial • Biaxial • Triaxial Types of movement • Gliding motion • Two surfaces slide past one another • Angular motion • Flexion, extension, hyperextension • Abduction, adduction • Circumduction Rotational movement • Left or right • Medial (internal) or lateral (external) • Pronation or supination in the bones of the forearm only Special movement • Movements of the foot • Inversion and eversion • Plantar flexion and dorsiflexion • Movements of the thumb • Opposition Other movements • Protraction moves a structure anteriorly • Retraction moves a structure posteriorly • Elevation moves a structure superiorly • Depression moves a structure inferiorly • Later
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