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axial skeleton.docx

3 Pages

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Kenneth Welch

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The Axial Skeleton Skeletal system includes both: • Axial skeleton • Skull • Auditory ossicles and hyoid bone • Vertebral column • Thoracic cage • Appendicular skeleton • Pectoral and pelvic girdles • Upper and lower limbs The skull • Consists of the cranium and the bones of the face • The cranium encloses cranial cavity • Facial bones surround and protect the entrances to the respiratory and digestive tracts • Superficial landmarks include the sutures • Lambdoid • Coronal • Sagittal • Squamous Focus: The Individual Bones of the Skull Cranial Bones • one occipital bone • foramen magnum • two parietal bones • one frontal bone • frontal sinuses The Axial Skeleton Facial bones • Maxillary bones • Mandible • Palatine bones • Nasal bones • Vomer Maxillae • Largest facial bones • Form the upper jaw and most of the hard palate Palatine and Nasal Bones • Palatine bones • Small “L” shaped bones • Form the posterior hard palate and floor of the nasal cavity • Nasal bones • Superior border of external nares Vomer, Zygomatic and Lacrimal bones • Vomer • Inferior portion of the nasal septum • Zygomatic bone • Temporal process articulates with zygomatic process of temporal bone • Lacrimal bones • Smallest bones of the face • Sit medially in orbit Mandible and Hyoid bones • Mandible • Bone of the lower jaw • Hyoid • Suspended by stylohyoid ligaments • Supports the larynx The orbital and nasal complexes • Seven bones in the orbital
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