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human development.docx

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Biological Sciences
Course Code
Kenneth Welch

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Pregnancy and Human Development From Egg to Embryo • Pregnancy – events that occur from fertilization until the infant is born • Conceptus – the developing offspring • Gestation period – from the last menstrual period until birth • Preembryo – conceptus from fertilization until it is two weeks old • Embryo – conceptus during the third through the eighth week • Fetus – conceptus from the ninth week through birth Accomplishing Fertilization • The oocyte is viable for 12 to 24 hours • Sperm is viable 24 to 72 hours • For fertilization to occur, coitus must occur no more than: • Three days before ovulation • 24 hours after ovulation • Fertilization – when a sperm fuses with an egg to form a zygote Sperm Transport and Capacitation • Fates of ejaculated sperm include: • Leak out of the vagina immediately after deposition • Destroyed by the acidic vaginal environment • Fail to make it through the cervix • Dispersed in the uterine cavity or destroyed by phagocytic leukocytes • Reach the uterine tubes • Sperm must undergo capacitation before they can penetrate the oocyte Acrosomal Reaction and Sperm Penetration • An ovulated oocyte is encapsulated by : • The corona radiata • The zona pellucida • Sperm binds to the zona pellucida and undergoes the acrosomal reaction • Enzymes are released near the oocyte • Hundreds of acrosomes release their enzymes to digest the zona pellucida Acrosomal Reaction and Sperm Penetration • Once a sperm makes contact with the oocyte’s membrane: • Beta protein finds and binds to receptors on the oocyte membrane • Alpha protein causes it to insert into the membrane Blocks to Polyspermy • Only one sperm is allowed to penetrate the oocyte • Two mechanisms ensure monospermy • Fast block to polyspermy – membrane depolarization prevents sperm from fusing with the oocyte membrane • Slow block to polyspermy • The cortical granules release enzymes that destroy sperm receptors • These enzymes cause sperm already bound to receptors to detach Completion of Meiosis II and Fertilization • Upon entry of sperm, the secondary oocyte: • Completes meiosis II • Casts out the second polar body • The ovum nucleus swells, and the two nuclei approach each other • When fully swollen, the two nuclei are called pronuclei • Fertilization – when the pronuclei come together Preembryonic Development • The first cleavage produces two daughter cells called blastomeres • Morula – the 16 or more cell stage (72 hours old) • By the fourth or fifth day the preembryo consists of 100 or so cells (blastocyst) • Blastocyst – a fluid-filled hollow sphere composed of: • A single layer of trophoblasts • An inner cell mass • Trophoblasts take part in placenta formation • The inner cell mass becomes the embryonic disc Implantation • Begins six to seven days after ovulation when the trophoblasts adhere to the endometrium • The trophoblasts then proliferate and form two distinct layers • Cytotrophoblast – cells of the inner layer that retain their cell boundaries • Syncytiotrophoblast – cells in the outer layer that lose their plasma membranes and invade the endometrium • The implanted blastocyst is covered over by endometrial cells • Implantation is completed by the fourteenth day after ovulation • Viability of the corpus luteum is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secreted by the trophoblasts • hCG prompts the corpus luteum to continue to secrete progesterone and estrogen • Chorion – developed from trophoblasts after implantation, continues this hormonal stimulus • Between the second and third month, the placenta: • Assumes the role of progesterone and estrogen production • Is providing nutrients and removing wastes Placentation • Formation of the placenta from: • Embryonic trophoblastic tissues • Maternal endometrial tissues • The chorion develops fingerlike villi, which: • Become vascularized • Extend to the embryo as umbilical arteries and veins • Lie immersed in maternal blood • Decidua basalis – part of the endometrium that lies between the chorionic villi and the stratum basalis • Decidua capsularis – part of the endometrium surrounding the uterine cavity face of the implanted embryo • The placenta is fully formed and functional by the end of the third month • Embryonic placental barriers include: • The chorionic villi • The endothelium of embryonic capillaries • The placenta also secretes other hormones – human placental lactogen, human chorionic thyrotropin, and relaxin Gem Layers • The blastocyst develops into a gastrula with three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm • Before becoming three-layered, the inner cell mass subdivides into the upper epiblast and lower hypoblast • These layers form two of the four embryonic membranes Embryonic Membranes • Amnion – epiblast cells form a transparent membrane filled with amniotic fluid • Provides a buoyant environment that protects the embryo • Helps maintain a constant homeostatic temperature • Amniotic fluid comes from maternal blood, and later, fetal urine • Yolk sac – hypoblast cells that form a sac on the ventral surface of the embryo • Forms part of the digestive tube • Produces earliest blood cells and vessels • Is the source of primordial germ cells • Allantois – a small outpocketing at the caudal end of the yolk sac • Structural base for the umbilical cord • Becomes part of the urinary bladder • Chorion – helps form the placenta • Encloses the embryonic body and all other membranes Gastrulation • During the 3 week, the two-layered embryonic disc becomes a three-layered embryo • The primary germ layers are ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm • Primitive streak – raised dorsal groove that establishes the longitudinal axis of the embryo • As cells begin to migrate: • The first cells that enter the groove form the endoderm • The cells that follow push laterally between the cells forming the mesoderm • The cells that remain on the embryo’s dorsal surface form the ectoderm • Notochord – rod of mesodermal cells that serves as axial support Primary Germ Layers • Serve as primitive tissues from which all body organs will be derived • Ectoderm – forms structures of the nervous system and skin epidermis • Endoderm – forms epithelial linings of the digestive, respiratory, and urogenital systems • Mesoderm – forms all other tissues • Endoderm and ectoderm are securely joined and are considered epithelia Organogenesis • Gastrulation sets the stage for organogenesis, formation of body organs • By the 8 week all organ systems are recognizable Specialization of Ectoderm • Neurulation – the first event of organogenesis gives rise to the brain and spinal cord • Ectoderm over the notochord thickens, forming the neural plate • The neural plate folds inward as a neural groove with prominent neural folds • By the 22 day, neural folds fuse into a neural tube, which
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