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muscular system.docx

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Biological Sciences
Kenneth Welch

The Muscular System Muscle Organization and Function Muscular system • Includes all skeletal muscle tissue that can be controlled voluntarily Organization of skeletal muscle fibers • Parallel muscle • Convergent muscle • Pennate muscle • Unipennate • Bipennate • Multipennate • Circular muscle (sphincter) Levers • Rigid structure that moves on a fixed point, the fulcrum • Changes direction and strength of applied force • Changes distance and speed of movement • Three classes • First class • Second class • Third class • Most common in the body Muscle Terminology Origins and Insertions • Muscles can be identified by origin, insertion and action • Origin = stationary end • Insertion = movable end Actions • Muscles can be classified by action • Agonist (prime mover) • Antagonist • Synergist • Fixator Names of skeletal muscles • Names give clues to muscle characteristics • Location • Fascicle organization • Relative position • Structure • Size • Shape • Origin and insertion • Action Axial and Appendicular Muscles • Axial musculature arises on axial skeleton • Positions head and spinal column and moves the rib cage • Appendicular musculature moves and stabilizes components of the appendicular skeleton The Axial Muscles Axial muscles • Logical groupings based on location and/or function • Head and neck • Vertebral column • Oblique and rectus muscles • Pelvic floor Muscles of the head and neck • Facial expression muscles • Orbicularis oris • Buccinator • Occipitofrontalis muscles • Platysma Extrinsic eye muscles (oculomotor or extra-ocular muscles) • Inferior and superior rectus muscles • Lateral and medial rectus muscles • Inferior and superior oblique muscles Muscles of mastication • Masseter muscles • Temporalis muscles • Pterygoid muscles Muscles of the tongue (speech, swallowing and mastication) • Genioglossus • Hypoglossus • Palatoglossus • Styloglossus Muscle of the pharynx • Pharyngeal constrictors • Laryngeal elevators • Palatal muscles Muscle of the neck • Control the position of the larynx • Depress the mandible • Provide a foundation for the muscles of the tongue • Digastric and sternocleidomastoid muscles • Seven muscles that originate or insert on the hyoid Muscles of the vertebral column • Superficial muscles of the spine • Spinalis • Longissimus • Iliocostalis Muscles of the vertebral column • Neck region • Longus capitus • Longus colli • Lumbar region • Quadratus lumborum Oblique and rectus muscles • Oblique • Scalene muscles • Intercostal muscles •
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