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occesous tissue.docx

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Biological Sciences
Kenneth Welch

Osseous Tissue and Skeletal Structure The Skeletal System: An Introduction The skeletal system includes • Bones of the skeleton • Cartilages, ligaments and other connective tissues that stabilize and connect Functions of the skeletal system • Support • Storage of minerals and lipids • Blood cell production • Protection • Leverage A Classification of Bones Bone shapes • Long • Flat • Short • Irregular • Sesamoid • Sutural Bone structure = two types of bone • Compact bone (dense) • Spongy bone (cancellous) A typical long bone includes • Diaphysis • Epiphyses • Metaphysis • Articular cartilage • Marrow cavity • Filled with red or yellow marrow Bone Histology Osseous tissue • Supporting tissue with a solid matrix • Crystals of hydroxyapatite • Minerals deposited in lamellae • Covered by periosteum Cells in bone: • Osteocytes = mature bone cells • In lacunae • Connected by canaliculi • Osteoblasts synthesize new matrix • Osteogenesis • Osteoclasts dissolve bone matrix • Osteolysis • Osteoprogenitor cells differentiate into osteoblasts Compact bone and spongy bone • Basic unit of compact bone is an osteon • Osteocytes arranged around a central canal • Perforating canals extend between adjacent osteons • Spongy bone contains trabeculae Bones and stress • Compact bone located where stresses are limited in direction • Spongy bone located where stresses are weaker or multi-directional
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