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BIOB32H3 (79)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Kenneth Welch

The Reproductive System •Reproductive system functions in gamete •Production •Storage •Nourishment •Transport •Fertilization •Fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote Introduction to the Reproductive System Reproductive system includes: •Gonads (testes, ovaries) •Ducts •Accessory glands and organs •External genitalia • Males and Females •Males •Testes produce spermatozoa •Expelled from body in semen during ejaculation •Females •Ovaries produce oocytes •Immature ovum •Travels along uterine tube toward uterus •Vagina connects uterus with exterior of body The Reproductive System of the Male Male Reproductive System •Pathway of spermatozoa •Epididymis •Ductus deferens •Ejaculatory duct •Accessory organs •Seminal vesicles •Prostate gland •Bulbourethral glands •Scrotal sac encloses testes •Penis The testes •Descent of the testes •Movement of testes through inguinal canal into scrotum •Occurs during fetal development •Testes remain connected to internal structures •Spermatic cords Male Anatomy •Musculature of scrotal sac •Dartos muscle wrinkles scrotal sac •Cremaster muscle pulls sac close to body •Testes anatomy •Tunica albuginea surrounds testis •Septa extend from tunica albuginea to epididymus •Lobules Sperm production •In seminiferous tubules •Interstitial cells between seminiferous tubules •Secrete sex hormones •Sperm pass through rete testis •Efferent ductules connect rete testis to epididymus Spermatogenesis •Seminiferous tubules •Contain spermatogonia •Stem cells involved in spermatogenesis •Contain sustentacular cells •Sustain and promote development of sperm Spermatogenesis •Spermatogenesis involves three processes •Mitosis •Meiosis •Spermiogenesis Anatomy of spermatozoon •Each spermatozoon has: •Head •Nucleus and densely packed chromosomes •Middle piece •Mitochondria that produce the ATP needed to move the tail •Tail •The only flagellum in the human body Male reproductive tract •Testes produce mature spermatozoa •Sperm enter epididymus •Elongated tubule with head, body and tail regions •Monitors and adjusts fluid in seminiferous tubules •Stores and protects spermatozoa •Facilitates functional maturation of spermatozoa Ductus deferens AKA vas deferens •Begins at epididymus •Passes through inguinal canal •Enlarges to form ampulla •Ejaculatory duct at base of seminal vesicle and ampulla •Empties into urethra Urethra •Urinary bladder to tip of penis •Three regions •Prostatic •Membranous •Penile Accessory glands •Seminal vesicles •Active secretory gland •Contributes ~60% total volume of semen •Secretions contain fructose, prostaglandins, fibrinogen Accessory glands •Prostate gland •Secretes slightly acidic prostate fluid •Bulbourethral glands •Secrete alkaline mucus with lubricating properties Contents of Semen •Typical ejaculate = 2-5 ml fluid •Contains between 20 – 100 million spermatozoa per ml •Seminal fluid •A distinct ionic and nutritive glandular secretion External genitalia •Male external genitalia consist of the scrotum and the penis •Skin overlying penis resembles scrotum •Penis •Contains three masses of erectile tissue •2 corpora cavernosa beneath fascia •1 corpus spongiosum surrounding urethra •Dilation of erectile tissue produces erection Hormones and male reproductive function •FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone) •Targets sustentacular cells to promote spermatogenesis •LH (leutinizing hormone) •Causes secretion of testosterone and other androgens •GnRH (Gonadotropin releasing hormone) •Testosterone •Most important androgen The Reproductive System of the Female Principle organs of the female reproductive system •Ovaries •Uteri
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