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Lecture 2

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Biological Sciences
Dan Silver

BIOB34H3- Lecture 2 September 13, 2012 Cellular Physiology - cell processes govern physiology Metabolism: biochemistry- metabolic pathways: substrates to products -reactions govern by enzymes (catalyst= faster for synthesis (anabolic) or break apart ( catabolic) -sum of all metabolic pathways -determined by how will enzymes are working -If ATP deprived, no metabolic pathways Enzymes: -speed or slow things down -made of proteins (have confirmations (changes) allow enzymes to bind certain way) -catalyst -3 properties 1. Active at low concentrations 2. Increase rate of reactions without being altered itself 3. Do not change nature of product ( only break down or put together) How they work? - they bind to substrates - changes activation energy ( reduces) in order to accelerate reaction Enzymes accelerate reactions: -without enzyme: Activation energy higher -with enzyme: Activation energy lower -enzyme: add more substrate= faster reactions= but reach plateau -too much product=slow reaction -no space for substrate Enzyme kinetics: - enzyme at first rapidly makes substrates to product -fastest with lots of substrates and lot of enzyme -plateau/equilibrium: run out of substrate Michaelis Menten: add too much substrate> enzyme saturated, free floating substrate until enzyme available -half velocity> Km value- affinity of enzyme to its substrate Biomolecules: 4 types 1. Proteins (like enzymes) 2. Carbohydrates 3. Lipids- hydrophobic -energy metabolism, cell structure and signalling 4. Nucleic Acids > tells us our genetic info -make important proteins The cell: compartmentalization Cell theory 1. Cells are the building blocks of plants and animals 2. Come from pre-existing cell 3. Smallest
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