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Lecture 10

Lecture 10

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Maydianne Andrade

1 Lecture 10 The Urinary System Introduction The urinary system does more than just get rid of liquid waste. It also: Regulates plasma ion concentrations Regulates blood volume and blood pressure Stabilizes blood pH Prevents the loss of valuable nutrients Eliminates organic matter Synthesizes calcitriol (active form of vitamin D) Prevents dehydration Aids the liver with some of its functions The urinary system consists of: Kidneys and the associated nephrons Ureters Urinary bladder Urethra The right kidney - covered by the liver, hepatic flexure, and duodenum The left kidney - covered by the spleen, stomach, pancreas, splenic flexure, and jejunum is positioned higher than the right kidney Both kidneys are capped with the suprarenal glands The Kidneys Superficial Anatomy of the Kidney The medial indentation is the hilum Renal arteries enter at the hilum Renal veins and ureters exit at the hilum Sectional Anatomy of the Kidney Consists of: Renal cortex Renal medulla, which consists of: Renal pyramids Renal papillae Renal columns Renal lobe, which consists of: Minor calyx Major calyx Renal pelvis The Blood Supply to the Kidneys Beginning with blood in the renal arteries Segmental arteries Interlobar arteries Arcuate arteries Cortical radiate arteries Afferent arterioles Glomerular capillaries Waste is dropped in the nephrons After waste is dropped off at the nephrons, blood leaves the kidneys via the following vessels: © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 Glomerular capillaries Efferent arteriole Peritubular capillaries or vasa recta capillaries Interlobular veins Arcuate veins Interlobar veins Renal vein Inferior vena cava Structure and Function of the Nephron Waste (glomerular filtrate) material leaves the glomerular capillaries and enters: Glomerular capsule Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) Nephron loop Distal convoluted tubule (DCT) Filtrate enters the DCT of several nephrons and empties into a common tube called the collecting duct Filtrate enters the papillary duct Minor calyx Major calyx Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra • The functional filtration unit of the kidney is the nephron which consists of a renal corpuscle (composed of glomerulus and glomerular capsule), and renal tubule consisting of proximal convoluted tubule
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