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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Connie Potroff

1 Lecture 1 (based on chapters 1 & 3) Foundations: An Introduction to Anatomy From Chapter 1 Introduction Anatomy The study of internal/external structures The study of the relationship between body parts The careful observation of the human body Physiology The study of how the body functions The study of mechanisms in the body Microscopic anatomy The study of structures that cannot be seen without magnification Cytology—study of cells Histology—study of tissues Macroscopic anatomy The study of structures that can be seen without magnification Surface anatomy: refers to the (study of) superficial anatomical markings Regional anatomy: refers to (study of) all structures in a specific area of the body, whether they are superficial or deep Systemic anatomy: The study of the organ systems of the body (digestive system, cardiovascular system, etc.) Other Perspectives on Anatomy Developmental anatomy: Examines structural changes over time Embryology: The study of early developmental stages Comparative anatomy: Considers different types of animals Levels of Organization Chemical/Molecular (simple) Cell Tissue Organ Organ system Organism (complex) Levels of Organization Chemical/Molecular - Over a dozen elements in the body Four of them make up 99% of the body - Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen Major classes of compounds – water, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acid Cell - the smallest living unit in the body Tissue - many cells and some surrounding material Organ - Combination of tissues Organ System - Combination of various organs make up a specific system For example: the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas make up the © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 digestive system Humans are composed of 11 organ systems Levels of Organization of Organ Systems Integumentary System Skeletal System Muscular System Nervous System Endocrine System Cardiovascular System Lymphoid System Respiratory System Digestive System Urinary System Reproductive System The Language of Anatomy Superficial Anatomy The terms are typically derived from Latin or Greek Latin or Greek is used because they are descriptive languages Anatomical position The hands are at the side The palms are facing forward All discussion of the human body is in reference to the anatomical position Supine: lying down (face up) in the anatomical position Prone: lying down (face down) in the anatomical position Abdominopelvic quadrants and regions Anatomists and clinicians use specialized regional terms to indicate a specific area of concern within the abdomen or the pelvic regions of the body. The abdomen and pelvic regions can be subdivided into four regions (abdominopelvic quadrants): Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Left upper quadrant (LUQ) Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Left lower quadrant (LLQ) The abdomen and pelvic regions can be subdivided into nine regions (abdominopelvic regions): Epigastric Right hypochondriac Left hypochondriac Umbilical Right lumbar Left lumbar Hypogastric Right inguinal Left inguinal Anatomical directions The most common directional terms used are: Superior Inferior Anterior Posterior Medial Lateral Superficial Deep © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 See Table 1.2 Regional and Directional Terms Sectional Anatomy There are many different ways to dissect a piece of tissue for further stu
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