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Lecture 10

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Connie Potroff

1 URINARY SYSTEM (based on Chapter 26) **Assigned Readings: p.706 (advances in the treatment of renal failure) Functions: - water and electrolyte balance (compounds that separate into ions when dissolved in water (eg. Na, K, Cl, Ca) - regulating blood volume and blood pressure - conservation of nutrients - excretion of toxic nitrogenous compounds (urea and creatine), toxic wastes from bacterial actions and removal of various drugs taken into the body ORGANS KIDNEYS – filtration and reabsorption, adrenal cortex and medulla URETERS – transport of urine (to bladder) BLADDER – storage of urine URETHRA – excretion of urine KIDNEYS - kidney - RENAL - positioned against posterior abdominal wall, behind parietal peritoneum (not covered by) (RETROPERITONEAL) - right kidney usually lower than left because of large area occupied by right lobe of liver below - kidney-bean shaped with ADRENAL GLAND S (endocrine glands which produce CORTICOSTEROIDS) positioned on top Functions 3 parts: 1. filtration of water and some solutes in blood, move out of glomerulus 2. tubular reabsorption, within tubules, needed solutes and most water moves back in 3. tubular secretion in collecting tubules, solutes move back out - - *FIBROUS CAPSULE (renal capsule) composed of dense irregular connective tissue - blood enters kidneys through RENAL ARTERY - *kidney has concave medial border called HILUM continuous with internal RENAL SINUS) where RENAL ARTERY, RENAL VEIN and URETER connect to the kidney - when sectioned along coronal plane,2 parts: outer RENAL CORTEX (reddish brown and granular in appearance because of many capillaries present) and inner RENAL MEDULLA (darker and presence of microscopic tubules and blood vessels give it a striped appearance) - renal medulla composed of 8-15 RENAL PYRAMIDS (apex called RENAL PAPILLAE) with RENAL COLUMNS
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