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Anatomy Chapter 1Homeostasis.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Connie Soros

Chapter 1 Homeostasis • Anatomy - the study of body structure - • Physiology - the study of body function 1. mechanistic approach a. explain how events occur b. e.g., you shiver because a drop in body T leads to signals for muscle contraction 2. teleological approach a. explain how a function fills a need, "why" b. e.g., you shiver because you need to keep warm 3. both approaches can be useful in understanding concepts • Levels of Organization - Cells 1. the basic unit of living things 2. humans are multicellular 3. several basic functions of all cells a. obtain nutrients and O 2 b. make usable energy, Food + O  CO 2 H O +2ener2y c. eliminate wastes d. synthesize needed molecules e. respond to environmental changes f. control exchange of materials with the environment g. transport molecules h. reproduce 4. in multicellular organisms, cells specialize - Tissues 1. group of cells with similar structure and function a. plus extracellular material 2. 4 major types a. muscle (1) specialized for contraction and force generation (2) skeletal - movement of body or body parts (3) cardiac - pump blood (4) smooth - movement of organs b. epithelial (1) specialized for exchange between cell and environment (2) 2 general types - sheets and secretory glands (3) sheets are tightly joined cells covering or lining parts of the body (4) glands secrete products (exocrine glands have ducts leading to a body surface, e.g. sweat glands; endocrine glands release products to interstitial fluid and it goes into blood, e.g. adrenal glands) c. nervous (1) specialized for initiating and transmitting electrical impulses (2) brain, spinal cord, nerves d. connective (1) specialized for connecting and supporting (2) found all over body
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