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Anatomy Chapter 11.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Connie Soros

Chapter 11 Blood • Basics - 8% of body weight, 5-5.5 liters - connective tissue 1. formed elements a. erythrocytes (RBCs) b. leukocytes (WBCs) c. platelets 2. matrix is plasma • Plasma - 90% water - contains proteins, ions, buffers, respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes, hormones - proteins are functionally important 1. establish osmotic pressure (holds water) 2. 3 types a. albumins - bind substances for transport b. globulins - bind substances for transport, blood clotting, inactive precursors, antibodies c. fibrinogen - blood clotting • Erythrocytes - carry oxygen - contain hemoglobin 1. carries most of O (4 O /molecule) 2 2 2. carries some CO 2 3. helps buffer blood - no nucleus or organelles - contains glycolytic enzymes for making ATP - - contain carbonic anhydrase, which converts CO to it2 transported form (HCO , bicarb3nate) - erythropoiesis (production of RBCs) 1. RBCs live about 120 days and most old, fragile cells die in spleen capillaries 2. occurs in red bone marrow (in adults - sternum, vertebrae, ends of long bones, ribs, base of skull) a. contains undifferentiated cells that give rise to all blood cells(pluripotent stem cells) b. controlled by hormone erythropoietin (1) released by kidneys in response to decreased O 2 (2) restoring normal O 2evels is negative feedback c. maturing cells eject nucleus/organelles d. process takes days to weeks depending on how many cells needed • Leukocytes (WBCs) - body d
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