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Anatomy Chapter 20.docx

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Biological Sciences
Connie Soros

Chapter 20 Reproductive System • Basics - Primary reproductive organs (gonads) 1. major functions a. produce gametes (gametogenesis) (1) sperm in male (2) ova in female b. secrete sex hormones (androgens & estrogens) (1) mainly testosterone in male (2) mainly estrogen & progesterone in female (3) important in the development of secondary sex characteristics (hair distribution, body shape, voice change) as well as major reproductive functions and development - essential functions in the male 1. spermatogenesis 2. delivery of sperm to female - essential functions in the female 1. oogenesis 2. receive sperm and transport for fertilization 3. maintain fetus 4. parturition and nourishment of infant - sex differentiation • Spermatogenesis - begins at puberty - parts of sperm 1. head contains DNA a. acrosome has enzymes to penetrate egg 2. midpiece has mitochondria 3. tail is for movement 1 - control of spermatogenesis 1. an increase in GnRH from hypothalamus occurs at puberty a. probably due to a decrease in melatonin 2. anterior pituitary hormones secreted (gonadotropins) a. luteinizing hormone (LH a.k.a. ICSH)  testosterone from interstitial cells  mitosis/meiosis of germ cells b. follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)  spermiogenesis (sperm remodeling) • Semen - produced by different glands 1. seminal vesicles (about 70%) a. fructose for energy b. prostaglandins for smooth muscle contraction in male and female reproductive tracts (transport) c. fibrinogen for clotting
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