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BIOB33 - Lecture 1.doc

6 Pages

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Connie Soros

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BIOB33 – Lecture 1 Prof’s Speech - Purple Textbook Material - Orange (based on chapters 1 & 3) Foundations: An Introduction toAnatomy From Chapter 1 Introduction Anatomy – the study of structures The study of external structures The study of internal structures The study of the relationship between body parts The careful observation of the human body Physiology – the study of bodily functions The study of how the body functions The study of mechanisms in the body Microscopic anatomy The study of structures that cannot be seen without magnification Cytology—study of cells at the microscopic level - Cyte = cell - Osteocyte: osteo = bone, cyte = cell Histology—study of tissues Macroscopic anatomy The study of structures that can be seen without magnification Surface anatomy: refers to the superficial anatomical markings - Superficial – close to the surface Regional anatomy: refers to all structures in a specific area of the body, whether they are superficial or deep Systemic anatomy: The study of the organ systems of the body (digestive system, cardiovascular system, etc.) Other Perspectives onAnatomy Developmental anatomy: examines structural changes over time Embryology: the study of early developmental stages; study of the first 6 weeks of fetal life Comparative anatomy: - considers different types of animals Levels of Organization Chemical/Molecular (simple) Cell Tissue Organ Organ system Organism (complex) Levels of Organization Chemical/Molecular - over a dozen elements in the body - four of them make up 99% of the body - hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen - major classes of compounds – water, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acid Cell - the smallest living unit in the body Tissue - many cells and some surrounding material Organ - Combination of tissues Organ System - Combination of various organs make up a specific system (example: the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas make up the digestive system) - Organs working together - The digestive system is one continuous tube, mouth to anus, food in, waste out Levels of Organization of Organ Systems - Humans are composed of 11 organ systems Integumentary System – protects against environmental hazards, helps to control body temperature Skeletal System – provides support, stores minerals, forms blood cells Muscular System – allows for locomotion, produces heat - Muscles start on one bone, have an insertion on another bone, and across a joint Nervous System – directs immediate responses to stimuli, coordinates activities of other systems Endocrine System – directs long-term changes in activities of other organ systems Cardiovascular System – transports cells and dissolved materials Lymphoid System – defends against infection and disease Respiratory System – delivers air to sites of gas exchange, produces sound Digestive System – processes food and absorbs nutrients Urinary System – eliminates excess water, salts and waste Reproductive System – produces sex cells and hormones The Language ofAnatomy Superficial Anatomy The terms are typically derived from Latin or Greek Latin or Greek is used because they are descriptive languages Anatomical position The hands are at the side The palms are facing forward All discussion of the human body is in reference to the anatomical position Supine: lying down (face up) in the anatomical position Prone: lying down (face down) in the anatomical position Abdominopelvic quadrants and regions Anatomists and clinicians use specialized regional terms to indicate a specific area of concern within the abdomen or the pelvic regions of the body. The abdomen and pelvic regions can be subdivided into four regions (abdominopelvic quadrants): Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Left upper quadrant (LUQ) Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Left lower quadrant (LLQ) The abdomen and pelvic regions can be subdivided into nine regions (abdominopelvic regions): Epigastric Right hypochondriac Left hypochondriac Umbilical Right lumbar Left lumbar Hypogastric Right inguinal Left inguinal Anatomical directions The most common directional terms used are: Superior - above Inferior – below Anterior – (ventral) front Posterior – (dorsal) back Medial Lateral Superficial Deep Caudal – tail region; end of torso Axis – top of head to bottom of torso Appendages – legs and arms Distal – farther from axis/joint Proximal – closer to axis/joint See Table 1.2 Regional and Directional Terms Sectional Anatomy There are many different ways to dissect a piece of tissue for further study. These are referred to as dissectional cuts or dissectional planes. Transverse cut: separating superior and inferior o Through the middle (making top and bottom), perpendicular to the length of the structure Sagittal cut: separating left and right o Longitudinal (top to bottom) cut Midsagittal: separating left and right equally Parasagittal: separating left and right unequally Frontal cut: separating anterior and posterior, front and back halves (opens like a book) Oblique cut: separating the tissue at an angle Sectional Anatomy: Body cavities Body Cavities are spaces in the body If you remove an organ from the body, you will leave a cavity The body cavities are studied in this manner: Posterior cavity Cranial cavity: consists of the brain (brain is protected by cranial bones) Spinal cavity: consists of the spinal cord Anterior cavity - The diaphragm, a large, flat muscle, separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
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