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BIOB34H3 (271)
Ted Petit (35)

Chapter 6.docx

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Biological Sciences
Ted Petit

Chapter 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues • Functions of bone - Support soft tissues - Protection of internal organs - Movement 1. points of muscle attachment 2. form joints - Mineral storage 1. mainly calcium and phosphorous - Production of blood cells 1. red marrow in some bones - Energy storage 1. yellow marrow is mostly fat • Types of Bones - Long bones 1. longer than they are wide (e.g., most bones of limbs) - Short bones 1. roughly cube shaped (e.g., bones of wrist and ankle) 2. sesamoid bones- in tendons, provide support (e.g., patella) - Flat bones 1. flat and curved (e.g., cranial bones, ribs, sternum, scapula) - Irregular bones 1. complex shapes (e.g., vertebrae and hip bones) • Basic structure of a long bone - Diaphysis 1. long part of bone (shaft) - Epiphyses 1. ends of the bone - Articular cartilage 1. hyaline cartilage covering ends of bone 2. decreases friction and absorbs shock - Periosteum 1. white fibrous membrane covering surfaces not covered by articular cartilage a. outer fibrous layer 1) dense irregular CT 2) blood and lymphatic vessels, nerves b. inner osteogenic layer 1) elastic fibers, blood vessels, bone cells 2. functions a. bone growth in thickness b. repair of fractures c. protects and nourishes d. point of attachment for ligaments and tendons - Medullary cavity 1. cavity in diaphysis containing yellow marrow - Endosteum 1. lining of marrow cavities 2. delicate CT with bone cells • Histology - Cells 1. osteoblasts a. secrete collagen and other parts of bone tissue b. on inner and outer bone surfaces c. become osteocytes 2. osteocytes a. main cells of bone tissue b. in cavities within bone called lacunae c. exchange nutrients and wastes with blood 3. osteoclasts a. may come from circulating WBCs b. on inner and outer bone surfaces c. break down bone (resorption) - Matrix 1. 25% water 2. 25% protein fibers a. collagen gives bones flexibility and strength 3. 50% mineral salts a. mainly calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate (hydroxyapatite = mineral salts) b. gives bone hardness - Compact bone 1. makes up outer portion of all bones and diaphyses of long bones 2. made up of osteons (Haversian systems) with interstitial lamellae in between a. blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves run
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