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Canada (509,662)
BIOB34H3 (271)
Ted Petit (35)

Chapter 9.docx

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Biological Sciences
Ted Petit

Chapter 9 Joints • Structural Classification - Based on whether there is a joint cavity and the type of CT 1. fibrous joint a. no cavity b. fibrous CT holds bones together 2. cartilaginous joint a. no cavity b. cartilage holds bones together 3. synovial joint a. has synovial cavity b. articular capsule and ligaments hold bones together • Functional Classification - Based on movement allowed 1. synarthroses are immovable 2. amphiarthroses are partially movable 3. diarthroses are freely movable • Fibrous Joints - Sutures 1. in skull a. dense fibrous CT b. functionally synarthrotic 2. other sutures (synostoses) a. complete fusion of bone b. functionally synarthrotic - Syndesmoses 1. more CT than a suture (longer fibers) 2. dense regular CT forms ligament or interosseous membrane 3. functionally amphiarthrotic (depends on length of fibers) - Gomphoses 1. peg fits into a socket 2. functionally synarthrotic • Cartilaginous Joints - Synchondroses 1. hyaline cartilage 2. epiphyseal plate is functionally synarthrosis, later becomes synostosis 3. sternum and rib 1 is synarthrosis - Symphyses 1. fibrocartilage 2. functionally amphiarthrotic • Synovial Joints - Basic structure 1. ends of bones covered with articular cartilage (hyaline), which reduces friction and absorbs shock 2. joint surrounded by articular capsule a. fibrous capsule is outer layer 1) mostly dense irregular CT 2) helps stabilize joint c. synovial membrane is inner layer 1) areolar CT, elastic fibers, adipose 2) secretes synovial fluid into synovial cavity, which lubricates (hyaluronic acid), supplies nutrients to articular cartilage and removes wastes (fluid is derived from plasma, coming from the blood vessels in the synovial membrane) 3. accessory ligaments a. some are intracapsular (part of articular capsule) b. some are extracapsular c. help stabilize joint 4. articular discs (menisci) a. fibrocartilage b. allow better fit of bone surfaces c. found in temporomandibular, knee, sternoclavicular, distal radioulnar 5. rich nerve supply a. same nerves that supply skeletal muscles that cause movement at that joint b. sensory nerves for pain and body position 6. rich blood supply 7. bursae a. sacs of CT lined with synov
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