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Chapter 18.docx

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Biological Sciences
Ted Petit

Chapter 18 Blood • Blood Basics - about 5 liters, about 8% of body weight - pH ranges 7.35 - 7.45 - Is a connective tissue 1. formed elements a. erythrocytes (RBCs) b. leukocytes (WBCs) c. platelets 2. matrix is plasma - Functions 1. transport of O , CO , nutrients, wastes, heat, hormones 2 2 2. protection, from WBCs and other defenses • Plasma - 55% of whole blood - 90% water - Contains proteins, ions, buffers, respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes, hormones - Proteins are functionally important 1. establish osmotic pressure (holds water) 2. three main types a. albumins- bind substances for transport b. globulins- bind substances for transport, blood clotting, inactive precursor molecules, antibodies c. fibrinogen- blood clotting • Formation of Blood Cells (Hematopoiesis) - Occurs in red marrow • Erythrocytes - About 45% of whole blood - Very small, about 8 m in diameter, can squeeze through even smaller capillaries - About 5 million/mm 3 - Mature cells have no nucleus or other organelles - Make ATP anaerobically - Live about 120 days, most die in spleen capillaries - Contain hemoglobin 1. carries most of the oxygen 2. carries some carbon dioxide 3. helps buffer blood - Erythropoiesis (production of RBCs) 1. controlled by hormone erythropoietin, which is released from the kidneys in response to low oxygen levels - Blood types 1. based on certain proteins (antigens) found on RBC surface a. 100+ kinds of antigens b. ABO and Rh most important
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