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Chapter 19.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Ted Petit

Chapter 19 The Heart • Basics - Found in mediastinum - Enclosed in pericardium 1. fibrous pericardium a. attached to diaphragm, fused to vessels going to/from heart b. dense irregular CT c. protects heart, attaches it to surrounding structures, prevents over-filling 2. serous pericardium a. parietal layer lines inside of fibrous pericardium b. visceral layer (epicardium) c. both layers are simple squamous epithelium and areolar CT d. pericardial cavity lies between layers and contains serous fluid (a.k.a. pericardial fluid) which decreases friction for the beating heart -Cardiac muscle cells 1. lots of mitochondria, uses oxygen to make ATP 2. contraction triggered by electrical signals a. signal spreads to all cells and heart contracts as a unit b. some cells are autorhythmic (they generate their own electrical activity), but can also be influenced by ANS - Layers of the heart 1. epicardium 2. myocardium a. mostly cardiac muscle b. fibrous skeleton 1) dense CT fibers that reinforce myocardium and support valves 2) limits spread of electrical activity 3. endocardium a. endothelium (simple squamous epith/areolar CT) b. lines chambers, covers valves c. continuous with lining of blood vessels • Anatomy of Heart - Know all structures from figs. 19.5bde • Pathway of blood through the heart - Pulmonary circuit 1. heart to lungs and back 2. gas exchange occurs in lungs (picks up O , 2rops off CO ) 2 3. right side of heart is pump 4. short distance, low pressure circulation - Systemic circuit 1. heart to
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