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Chapter 21.docx

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Biological Sciences
Ted Petit

Chapter 21 Lymphatic System • Lymphatic Vessels and Lymph - Collect excess fluid in tissues and return it to bloodstream - Lymph is basically the same as interstitial fluid (once in lymphatic vessels, it's called lymph) - Lymphatic vessels (lymphatics) 1. begin at lymphatic capillaries (initial lymphatics) a. closed-ended vessels b. found most anywhere capillary beds are (not in avascular tissues, not in CNS, red bone marrow, parts of spleen) c. very permeable 1) constructed with overlapping cells that act as one-way valves 2) cells of lymphatic capillaries are attached to tissues by anchoring filaments; when excess interstitial fluid accumulates (edema) these pull on the cells and make the openings even bigger 3) allow any leaked plasma proteins to return to blood 2. lymphatic collecting vessels a. lymph in lymphatic capillaries flows into larger vessels b. have 3 tunics, but very thin walls c. have valves similar to the ones in veins d. flow maintained mainly by squeezing from surrounding skeletal muscles (also smooth muscle of vessels, also breathing - the lymph flows toward low pressure of thoracic region) 3. lymph nodes a. filters lymph, catches invaders 4. lymphatic trunks drain large areas of body 5. lymphatic ducts a. thoracic duct 1) main collecting duct for lymph 2) receives lymph from left side of upper body, entire body inferior to ribs 3) begins at cisterna chyli 4) empties into subclavian vein b. right lymphatic duct 1) receives lymph from upper right side of body 2) empties into right subclavian vein • Lymphoid Organs and Tissues - Lymph nodes 1. f
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