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Chapter 22.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Ted Petit

Chapter 22 Respiratory System • Basics - Two zones 1. conducting zone (air passages) 2. respiratory zone (site of gas exchange) - Function 1. gas exchange (O in, CO out) 2 2 2. other functions such as acid/base balance, route for water and heat loss - Four major processes 1. pulmonary ventilation (breathing) 2. external respiration a. gas exchange between lung air sacs and blood 3. gas transport a. cardiovascular system carries O 2o tissues and CO ba2k to lungs 4. internal respiration a. gas exchange between blood and tissues • Nose - Functions 1. airway 2. moistens, warms and filters air - External nose 1. bone and hyaline cartilage - Nasal cavity 1. air enters by external nares (nostrils) 2. divided by nasal septum (cartilage and bone) 3. contains olfactory mucosa and respiratory mucosa a. respiratory mucosa is pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium b. debris is trapped in mucus and can be swallowed or spit out 4. nasal conchae a. projections in cavity (soft tissue and bone) b. allow air to bounce around, so most debris is caught by mucosa 5. internal nares (posterior nasal aperture) open to throat • Pharynx (throat) - Air passageway - Three parts 1. nasopharynx a. pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium b. pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) in posterior walls c. uvula closes it off during swallowing 2. oropharynx a. also a food passageway b. stratified squamous epithelium c. palatine and lingual tonsils 3. laryngopharynx a. also a food passageway b. stratified squamous epithelium • Larynx (voice box) - Air passageway - Made up of cartilages, ligaments, muscles -
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