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BIOB34H3 (271)
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Chapter 25 & 17.docx

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Biological Sciences
Ted Petit

Chapter 25 Reproductive System • Basics - Gonads are the primary sex organs and produce gametes 1. in typical female ovaries produce eggs 2. in typical male testes produce sperm 3. gonads also secrete sex hormones - Accessory reproductive organs • Biological sex - Genetic (chromosomal) - Internal and External Structures - Intersex and other differences from typical • Typical Male - Scrotum 1. sac of skin with superficial fascia 2. two compartments 3. dartos muscle (wrinkles skin) and cremaster muscle (elevates testes) control temperature for sperm production - Testes 1. outer serous membrane is tunica vaginalis 2. inner fibrous layer is tunica albuginea a. divides each testis into a few hundred lobules 1) contain seminiferous tubules which produce sperm 2) sustentacular (Sertoli) cells support developing sperm 3) interstitial (Leydig) cells produce testosterone - Spermatic cord contains nerves, blood vessels, ducts - Duct system 1. epididymis a. sperm mature and are stored 2. ductus (vas) deferens a. runs through spermatic cord into pelvic cavity b. transports sperm 3. urethra a. transports sperm out of body b. three regions - prostatic, membranous, penile - Accessory glands 1. seminal vesicles - produce most of the semen (about 70%) 2. prostate - produces about 30% of semen 3. bulbourethral glands - produce mucus (pre-ejaculate) 4. semen contains alkaline fluid to neutralize the acidity of the female reproductive tract, and fructose to provide sperm with an energy source - Penis 1. delivers sperm to female tract 2. contains spongy CT and smooth muscle filled with vascular spaces a. corpus spongiosum and corpora cavernosa - fill with blood during erection • Typical Female - Ovaries 1. supported by ligaments 2. surrounded by tunica albuginea covered with cuboidal cells 3. cortex has follicles with gametes 4. medulla has blood vessels and nerves - Uterine tubes (Fallopian tubes or oviducts) 1. receive ovulated oocyte 2. site of fertilization 3. open end is infundibulum (ciliated fimbriae sweep oocyte into tube) 4. walls have smooth muscle and thick folded mucosa (simple ciliated columnar, cilia move oocyte toward uterus) - Uterus 1. receives, retains and nourishes fertilized egg 2. cervix opens to vagina
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