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Lecture 1

BIOB34H3 Lecture 1: 13

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Biological Sciences
Blake Richards

12202015 OneNote Online Breathing Saturday, November 28, 2015 5:06 PM Compared with average fish, tunas have evolved gills that present an extraordinarily large surface of extraordinarily thin membrane to the water for gas exchange. Ram Ventilation occurs when a fish opens it mouth and swims powerfully forward, thereby ramming water into its buccal cavity and across its gills. Some fish like tunas abandoned buccalopercular pumping mechanism and became obligate ram ventilators External Respiration = Breathing Ventilation is convection (bulk flow) of air or water to and from the gas exchange membrane during breathing. Considered active if the animal creates the ventilatory currents of air or water flow to and from the gas exchange membrane using metabolic energy (more reliable, controllable and vigorous) Considered passive if environmental air or water currents directly or indirectly induce flow to and from the gasexchange membrane. The main difference between gills and lungs is that gills are surrounded by environment medium while lungs contain the environmental medium. Although exceptions occur, water breathing is usually by gills, whereas air breathing is usually by lungs The adjective branchial refers to structures or processes associated with gills Pulmonary refers to structures associated with lungs Gills can be external or internal When gills are internal, the enclosing structures physically protect them and may help canalize the flow which can enhance the efficiency or control of breathing. https:adminmailutorontomy.sharepoint.compersonalhema_potluri_mail_utoronto_ca_layouts15WopiFrame.aspx?guestaccesstoken=0NXnTejTLtMMJI2 17
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